"Čekám na muže."
Translation:I am waiting for my husband.
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This is a tricky one. As a native speaker I would always understand that as "my husband". Because if she (or he) was waiting for 'a man' they would say 'some' or 'one' or use some other determinant.
Čekám na nějakého muže. Čekám na jednoho muže.
If this sentence was used by a male that I know is married to a woman, I would be completely confused and likely ask "whose husband"?
I understand how this is confusing and am sorry about that.
The "my" in "for my husband" comes from the need of some determiner in English. The sentence would be incomplete with just "for husband". So in English we add "my" before the husband to completely specify it. In Czech it is quite clear she is waiting for her husband.
I am not a native English speaker but I think "my man" is not a correct way to refer to "my husband" in English.
You can also understand the Czech sentence as "I am waiting for a man.". Then no "my" is necessary, but again English requires an indefinite article here, just "for man" would be ungrammatical.
It is very common (in the US) in English to refer to ones significant other/spouse as "my man" or "my woman". It would be understood by the person they are speaking to that they are referring to their romantic partner. Similar to the way you described the usage of 'muze' to native Czech speakers.