"He gives the apple to a lady."
Translation:Er gibt einer Dame den Apfel.
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Why is it den Apfel instead of dem Apfel?
The apple is the direct object (the thing that "suffers" or undergoes the act of giving), so it stands in the accusative case in the German sentence.
The lady is the indirect object (the recipient of the giving), so she stands in the dative case in the German sentence.
Thus Er gibt einer Dame den Apfel / Er gibt den Apfel einer Dame, with masculine accusative den Apfel and feminine dative einer Frau.
dem would be masculine dative -- wrong case, since the apple is not the recipient.
The direct object of a sentence is whom or what the verb is applied. In this case, it is den Apfel that is being given. The indirect object is to/for whom/what the direct object is applied. In this case, it is einer Dame that the apple is being given to.
There is no need to say "to" because it is implied by the dative case.
Two questions!! 1. is it acceptable (as long as I use the correct forms of the cases Der/den/dem etc) to say either "Er gibt einer Dame den Apfel" and/or "er gibt den Apfel einer Dame"? 2. in English we have "give...to" is the "to" implied in German when using the dative case when talking about "a" lady (in this case by saying "einer" in "gibt...einer")?
"He gives a lady the apple" is just as good. In English, your example focuses on the apple, and my example maybe puts more focus on the fact that he gives it to a lady. In German it's the other way around - so the 'standard' sentence is the one in the lesson. Hope that makes sense!
In my point of view, since Apple is aimed as singular, the dative article should be “dem”. But in the answer they are using “Den” as apple is for plural. If they want to use “Den” they should put “s” behind the apple. So it should be “Apples”. If not some of the beginner will be confused.
' einer Dame = dative ' and ' den Apfel = accusative '. The dative ( IO ), comes before the accusative ( DO ). Only the masculine in the accusative changes ( eg. der = den, etc. ) However, all three genders change in the dative ( eg. der = dem, etc., die = der etc., das = dem, etc. ).