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  5. "I do not study."

"I do not study."

Translation:저는 공부하지 않습니다.

September 12, 2017



To negate a verb or an adjective there are two forms of negation, short form negation (안) and long form negation (지 않다). 안 is a contraction of "no" / 아니. This explanation does not discuss negation with 못 (can not) which can also be used in long and short form negation.

Short form negation: 안 + inflected verb

안 가요 (do not go)

안 배워요 (do not learn)

안 마셔요 (do not drink)

Verbs and adjectives that already have a corresponding negation can not be used with short form negation. Example: 모르다 (to not know).

If the verb is a compound verb, then the short form negation will change. Compound verbs are of the form "noun + 하다". Recall that 하다 is the uninflected verb "to do".

Short form negation with compound verb: noun + 안 + 하다 inflected

키스 안 해요 (do not kiss)

수영 안 해요 (do not swim)

공부 안 해요 (do not study)

Long form negation: stem + 지 않다 inflected

먹지 않아요 (do not eat)

마시지 않아요 (do not drink)

비싸지 않아요 (is not expensive)

공부하지 않아요 (do not study)

Note that long form negation does not change when used with a compound verb.

So when does one use short form or long form negation?

Quoted from Basic Korean (Andrew Sangpil Byon):

"There is no meaning difference between the long form negation and the short form negation. Consequently they are used interchangeably. However, the long form negation tends to be more often used in written and formal communication."

Unit 18 of the aforementioned book exhaustively discusses negation in Korean language.


Thank you for taking the time to explain! :D


Ahhh, s**t makes sense now. Thank you!


thank you so much! this still helps immensely a year later!


I dont get it what this for?


(is not expensive) is not a verb its an adjective. please explain more about this point


I wrote "To negate a verb or an adjective"

In Korean, the uninflected (or dictionary form) of a verb, adjective or copular has a stem. To derive the stem of an uninflected verb, adjective or copular, simply remove the ending -다 from the uninflected form.


I'm confused by the usage of 지 here. anyone care to elaborate?


-지 않습니다 together negates a verb


Use -- (하)지 않아 to negate verb.

하 is used if only the word contains 하다.


In this case 공부하다 so it becomes 공부하지 않아


Thank you! I was confused about why this verb contained 하지 instead of something like 배우지, which does not.


When i wrote 저는 안 공부 합니다 they marked it correct. Is it correct?


It probably marked it correct because the omission of the object particle 을 / 를 is acceptable in Korean language, though more informal. You placed a space between 공부 and 합니다. The following statement is grammatically correct: 저는 공부를 안 합니다

It's not correct to write 저는 안 공부합니다. 공부하다 is a compound verb. In compound negation with 안, the inflection of 하다 is placed after 안 as in 저는 공부 안 합니다.


I just wondering, if you wanted to make the sentence informal could you change it to "저는 공부하지마."? I ask because from my understanding adding -마 to -하지 makes it negative.


The construction verb + 지 말다 is not related to formality.

verb stem + 지 말다 simply is a negated imperative or propositive

recall that 말다 is irregular in the imperative, so ㄹ is removed

So, “ 공부하지마” means “do not study” as an imperative

“저는 공부하지마” would not makes sense in this case.


When I wrote "나는 공부를 안 해요.", it said I had a typo because I didn't use "저는". It'll get fixed, I assume, once they get the report I put in (since 나 does, in fact, mean I/me). Hehe


This is not correct. 해요 is inflected in 존댓말 and 나 is in 반말. By contrast, 저는 is 존댓말. In this phrase, you can not mix 존댓말 and 반말.


I hear people mix 나는/내가 with (verb)+요 literally on an every day basis.


The mixture of 존댓말 and 반말 exists in spoken Korean. In the simple case here where you have a subject and an inflected predicate, and the sentence does not consist of cultural idioms, jargon, it is not correct to mix 존댓말 and 반말, and at best it's awkward and not proper.




저는 안 공부해요 should also be accepted. reported 7/4/18.


This is not grammatically correct. Short form negation when used with a compound verb like 공부하다 is different than short form negation with a non-compound verb, see my answer.


Why is this reply downvoted?


I presume it's because it's written in a way that's a bit obtuse/hard to follow.

Unless you already know what "short form negation" might refer to, I can see how it could be confusing.


Well, as was stated in the answer, there is a more thorough explanation in the previous answer by the user, which I assume is the top answer on this thread. I upvoted it; it does not deserve its downvote, as it is both factual, to the point, and refers to a more thorough explanation from earlier.


It is now, nearly a year later


너무 감사합니다 ~~


When to use 습니다 합니다 and 입니다??


습니다 is a sentence ending for declarative sentences in the deferential speech level, when the predicate used ends in a consonant. When the predicate used ends in a vowel, then the ending becomes ㅂ니다, where ㅂ becomes the final consonant of the predicate stem.

My answer will probably not seem useful if you don't understand sentence endings and how they attach to predicates. I have a website that explains that here if you're interested: https://seoullatte.com/deferential-speech


why did they add 하지 to the end of 공부?


Read the long post I wrote above, that should answer your question.


If 공부하지 means "not study", what is 않습니다 for here?


않다 (않습니다 / 않아요) means "not" or "don't". Maybe you're confused that it's a double negative, then? Lots of languages do the same.

In spite of duolingo's hint, though, this isn't exactly true. "~하지" doesn't always take on the meaning of "not ~".


공부하지 by itself does not mean "not study", read my full explanation above


i was attacked-


Why is it 하지 instead of 합니다?


Please read my entire answer above as it will explain everything. In brief:

  • predicate stem + 지 않다 is a negated predicate.
  • predicate stem + 습니다 or ㅂ니다 is not negated and in the deferential speech level

You can read more about the deferential speech level and negation here in a website I maintain:




i put the right answer but it says that im wrong, please fix this issue


Why does 하 appear after 공부?


Because the verb in question is "공부하다".


Compound verbs come in the form "noun" + 하다. They are widely used in the Korean language and are usually composed as noun + 을/를 + 하다 or noun + 하다.

공부를 하다


Note that adjectives also come in this form such as 강하다, but adjectives are not written with the predicate 을/를.


How many times do you want me to expose myself?

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