"I do not study."

Translation:저는 공부하지 않습니다.

September 12, 2017

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To negate a verb or an adjective there are two forms of negation, short form negation (안) and long form negation (지 않다). 안 is a contraction of "no" / 아니. This explanation does not discuss negation with 못 (can not) which can also be used in long and short form negation.

Short form negation: 안 + inflected verb

안 가요 (do not go)

안 배워요 (do not learn)

안 마셔요 (do not drink)

Verbs and adjectives that already have a corresponding negation can not be used with short form negation. Example: 모르다 (to not know).

If the verb is a compound verb, then the short form negation will change. Compound verbs are of the form "noun + 하다". Recall that 하다 is the uninflected verb "to do".

Short form negation with compound verb: noun + 안 + 하다 inflected

키스 안 해요 (do not kiss)

수영 안 해요 (do not swim)

공부 안 해요 (do not study)

Long form negation: stem + 지 않다 inflected

먹지 않아요 (do not eat)

마시지 않아요 (do not drink)

비싸지 않아요 (is not expensive)

공부하지 않아요 (do not study)

Note that long form negation does not change when used with a compound verb.

So when does one use short form or long form negation?

Quoted from Basic Korean (Andrew Sangpil Byon):

"There is no meaning difference between the long form negation and the short form negation. Consequently they are used interchangeably. However, the long form negation tends to be more often used in written and formal communication."

Unit 18 of the aforementioned book exhaustively discusses negation in Korean language.

(edit september 2020)

If you're interested in precise and clear Korean grammar explanations, I maintain an open source web application at https://seoullatte.com


Thank you for taking the time to explain! :D


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I'm confused by the usage of 지 here. anyone care to elaborate?


Use -- (하)지 않아 to negate verb.

하 is used if only the word contains 하다.


In this case 공부하다 so it becomes 공부하지 않아


Thank you! I was confused about why this verb contained 하지 instead of something like 배우지, which does not.


When i wrote 저는 안 공부 합니다 they marked it correct. Is it correct?


It probably marked it correct because the omission of the object particle 을 / 를 is acceptable in Korean language, though more informal. You placed a space between 공부 and 합니다. The following statement is grammatically correct: 저는 공부를 안 합니다

It's not correct to write 저는 안 공부합니다. 공부하다 is a compound verb. In compound negation with 안, the inflection of 하다 is placed after 안 as in 저는 공부 안 합니다.


So does "않" mean like to not do, and "없" means like to not have something? I could be so wrong, Im just asking to understand the difference better. Can someone explains it to me please :)


없다 is an adjective. The most common usage is to indicate that a certain thing is not present or does not exist.

강아지 없어 I do not have a dog

커피 없어 There isn't any coffee

"않" is most commonly recognized when used with the auxillary predicate 지 않다 which I've written quite a bit about already in the most upvoted answer in this post.

If you want to read about these subjects seperately, you can go here




Even my duo knows I don't study _


That is what I am doing right now Duo!!


I just wondering, if you wanted to make the sentence informal could you change it to "저는 공부하지마."? I ask because from my understanding adding -마 to -하지 makes it negative.


The construction "verb stem + 지 말다" is not related to formality.

verb stem + 지 말다 simply is a negated imperative or propositive

recall that 말다 is irregular in the imperative, so ㄹ is removed

So, “ 공부하지마” means “do not study” as an imperative or propositive statement

“저는 공부하지마” would not makes sense in this case, it would literally translate to "As for myself, do not study. (imperative)"


When I wrote "나는 공부를 안 해요.", it said I had a typo because I didn't use "저는". It'll get fixed, I assume, once they get the report I put in (since 나 does, in fact, mean I/me). Hehe


This is not correct. 해요 is inflected in 존댓말 and 나 is in 반말. By contrast, 저는 is 존댓말. In this phrase, you can not mix 존댓말 and 반말.


I hear people mix 나는/내가 with (verb)+요 literally on an every day basis.


The mixture of 존댓말 and 반말 exists in spoken Korean. In the simple case here where you have a subject and an inflected predicate, and the sentence does not consist of cultural idioms, jargon, it is not correct to mix 존댓말 and 반말, and at best it's awkward and not proper.


너무 감사합니다 ~~


why did they add 하지 to the end of 공부?


Read the long post I wrote above, that should answer your question.


Is this a personal attack


Can't I say "저는 공부를 안해요"?


Yes, this is grammatically correct


When to use 습니다 합니다 and 입니다??


습니다 is a sentence ending for declarative sentences in the deferential speech level, when the predicate used ends in a consonant. When the predicate used ends in a vowel, then the ending becomes ㅂ니다, where ㅂ becomes the final consonant of the predicate stem.

My answer will probably not seem useful if you don't understand sentence endings and how they attach to predicates. I have a website that explains that here if you're interested: https://seoullatte.com/deferential-speech

[deactivated user]

    If 공부하지 means "not study", what is 않습니다 for here?


    공부하지 by itself does not mean "not study", read my full explanation above


    않다 (않습니다 / 않아요) means "not" or "don't". Maybe you're confused that it's a double negative, then? Lots of languages do the same.

    In spite of duolingo's hint, though, this isn't exactly true. "~하지" doesn't always take on the meaning of "not ~".


    Why is it 하지 instead of 합니다?


    Please read my entire answer above as it will explain everything. In brief:

    • predicate stem + 지 않다 is a negated predicate.
    • predicate stem + 습니다 or ㅂ니다 is not negated and in the deferential speech level

    You can read more about the deferential speech level and negation here in a website I maintain:




    Why does 하 appear after 공부?


    Compound verbs come in the form "noun" + 하다. They are widely used in the Korean language and are usually composed as noun + 을/를 + 하다 or noun + 하다.

    공부를 하다


    Note that adjectives also come in this form such as 강하다, but adjectives are not written with the predicate 을/를.


    Because the verb in question is "공부하다".


    Would this still work if the "하지" were left out, like of the sentence were '저는 공부 않습니다' ?


    No, this wouldn't work


    Would you mind explaining why?



    "noun + 않다" is not grammatically correct.

    "저는 공부 않습니다" is like saying "As for myself, book is not."

    Please refer to my long comment above, I explain all correct usages of negation using -지 않다 and 안.


    Oh thank you! Now that I read more of that long comment I remember having read it once before, but I forgot about the details since it's been a while. Thank you for your help!


    Can i say 저는 송부하지 없습니다


    When do I use -지 and -하지?... I'm a little confused because some words only got -지 and some got -하지... Thank you❤️


    You use the root word of the verb plus 지.

    The root for 하다 is 하, so any word 하다 verb uses 하지.

    Other verbs use their own root.

    가다 -> 가지

    보내다 -> 보내지 And so on


    Why is it 공부하지 and not 공부지? Why does 하 need to be added?


    Because "to study" is "공부하다".

    In fact, that's short for "공부를 하다".

    하 is necessary, because it's the root word of the verb.


    What is "하지"



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