"A friend has the ball."
Translation:친구는 공이 있습니다.
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The object marker (을/를) is used for when an action happens upon the thing.
Ex: I eat pizza. = 저는 피자를 먹어요. Because eating happens to the pizza.
And in contrast, "I have a wife." is "저는 아내(가) 있어요." It wouldn't make sense with 아내를 because in "아내 있어요", nothing is happening to her.
Would 친구가 be totally ungrammatical here? I still feel like I don't quite understand the difference between 는 and 가
안녕하세요! I know this is a bit of a late response, but I wanted to give answer in case anyone else was wondering as well.
From what I've come to understand, 는 and 가 are different, in that 는 marks the object/topic of a sentence (like "친구는"), and 가 marks the subject of a sentence (like "자동차가"). So in the context of this sentence, "친구가" would be grammatically incorrect.
I hope this helps! I wish you success with your studies. 안녕!
Also another late comment, but I hope it is still useful! 이/가 marks subjects and 을/를 marks objects, while 은/는 marks topic. It's actually fine in Korean to have more than one argument marked with 이/가 ('subject') in a sentence, so: 친구가 공이 있습니다. is perfectly grammatical. However, that doesn't necessarily mean this is the most natural way of expressing this idea.
It's important to distinguish grammatical relations such as subject and object from pragmatic functions such as topic. Sometimes a subject is a topic (like here!) but sometimes it's not, and we need all the different ideas in order to properly describe each part of a sentence :)
A pretty late question, but I still can't fully grasp the concept of these particles. If I change the sentence given by Duolingo to this :
친구가 공은 있습니다.
Will it change the meaning into : "The ball has a friend"? But if I remember correctly from previous lessons, the sentence will actually emphasise "the friend" part so my guess is that the sentence I wrote above can be used when you want to answer a question of "who has the ball?" while the original translation from Duolingo (친구는 공이 있습니다) is used when you want to answer the question "what thing does the friend have?" If that's the case, how do you make the sentence "the ball has a friend"? If that's not the case, then how do you make the emphasis? Please help me ;-;
I think changing it to "친구가 공은 있습니다." would simply make it ungrammatical.
You can have the topic marker come after a subject marker, but there would need to be more between it.
Like, a silly example, might be "The ball that the man is holding is big."
남자가 들고 있는 공은 무겁습니다. 남자가 드는 공은 무겁습니다.
But just having a sentence with nothing but a noun that's the subject followed by another noun that's the topic seems strange.
Hi! I know this is a late reply, but I was just as confused for the longest time on this, so I wanted to give response for anyone else who might be wondering.
The understanding I've come to, is that "이" can be equivalent of "is", and is often used to mark subjects. It's just how it is for objects in the Korean language, I think, but I could be wrong. "을" can be the equivalent of "has", and is used to mark objects/topics. If "을" was used, I believe it would replace "는", and change the sentence's meaning from, "A/My friend has the ball" to "A/My friend's ball".
I could be wrong, as I am still learning myself. Anyone, please feel free to correct me if I have made a mistake in my explanation!
I hope this helps some! I wish you success. 안녕!
There are literally tons of Korean words that are spelled and said the same with different meanings.
은행 means both a bank and ginkgo nuts. 눈 is snow and eyes. 사경 means both the edge of death and wry/stiff neck. 먹다 means both to eat and to have a strongly held deep decision.
And that's the tip of the iceberg.
The 는/은, I dont know, but I do know about the 를/을 and 가/이.
The 를/을 goes back to whatever is the object and 가/이 goes to the subject. So if I were to say that my friend likes Stray Kids, it would be something like 진구가 방탄 소년단을 초하해요. See how the 가 and 을 fit? They go to the subject and object, respectively.
I know there’s two different syllable blocks, though. So the ‘-가’ goes to a word that ends with a vowel like 아, 이, 우, 오, 애, etc. The ‘-이’ goes against something that ends with a consonant like ㅁ, ㅂ, ㄹ, ㅎ, etc.
Same with the 를/을. The ‘-를’ goes against the object that ends in a vowel and ‘-을’ goes to one that ends in a consonant.
I really hope this helps. I explained it to the best of my understanding. I will do a little researh to see if I can find a better explanation.
Okay. I found this to better educate you. I dont care if you think my own explanation is trash, I just like to help people and I hope it makes it easier for you to understand the language. Korean is really awesome and Korea is taking the world by storm as we speak. 끝
So here’s the link to the explanation I found. Once again, happy learning! https://www.hillslearning.com/articles/learning-korean-nyc
Why is it not "칭구가 공을 있습니다"? The friend is the one performing the action (having) and the ball is the recipient of that action, so why is the ball considered the subject?
I think I was misspelling 친고 to 진고, I used to use mobile but do it now on desktop primarily so I could really familiarize myself with not only listening but also writing. I guess writing it completely doesn't make it any more difficult, I think I'll do the long form for a bit -