"A friend has the ball."
Translation:친구는 공이 있습니다.
Would 친구가 be totally ungrammatical here? I still feel like I don't quite understand the difference between 는 and 가
안녕하세요! I know this is a bit of a late response, but I wanted to give answer in case anyone else was wondering as well.
From what I've come to understand, 는 and 가 are different, in that 는 marks the object/topic of a sentence (like "친구는"), and 가 marks the subject of a sentence (like "자동차가"). So in the context of this sentence, "친구가" would be grammatically incorrect.
I hope this helps! I wish you success with your studies. 안녕!
Also another late comment, but I hope it is still useful! 이/가 marks subjects and 을/를 marks objects, while 은/는 marks topic. It's actually fine in Korean to have more than one argument marked with 이/가 ('subject') in a sentence, so: 친구가 공이 있습니다. is perfectly grammatical. However, that doesn't necessarily mean this is the most natural way of expressing this idea.
It's important to distinguish grammatical relations such as subject and object from pragmatic functions such as topic. Sometimes a subject is a topic (like here!) but sometimes it's not, and we need all the different ideas in order to properly describe each part of a sentence :)
Hi! I know this is a late reply, but I was just as confused for the longest time on this, so I wanted to give response for anyone else who might be wondering.
The understanding I've come to, is that "이" can be equivalent of "is", and is often used to mark subjects. It's just how it is for objects in the Korean language, I think, but I could be wrong. "을" can be the equivalent of "has", and is used to mark objects/topics. If "을" was used, I believe it would replace "는", and change the sentence's meaning from, "A/My friend has the ball" to "A/My friend's ball".
I could be wrong, as I am still learning myself. Anyone, please feel free to correct me if I have made a mistake in my explanation!
I hope this helps some! I wish you success. 안녕!
The 는/은, I dont know, but I do know about the 를/을 and 가/이.
The 를/을 goes back to whatever is the object and 가/이 goes to the subject. So if I were to say that my friend likes Stray Kids, it would be something like 진구가 방탄 소년단을 초하해요. See how the 가 and 을 fit? They go to the subject and object, respectively.
I know there’s two different syllable blocks, though. So the ‘-가’ goes to a word that ends with a vowel like 아, 이, 우, 오, 애, etc. The ‘-이’ goes against something that ends with a consonant like ㅁ, ㅂ, ㄹ, ㅎ, etc.
Same with the 를/을. The ‘-를’ goes against the object that ends in a vowel and ‘-을’ goes to one that ends in a consonant.
I really hope this helps. I explained it to the best of my understanding. I will do a little researh to see if I can find a better explanation.
Okay. I found this to better educate you. I dont care if you think my own explanation is trash, I just like to help people and I hope it makes it easier for you to understand the language. Korean is really awesome and Korea is taking the world by storm as we speak. 끝
So here’s the link to the explanation I found. Once again, happy learning! https://www.hillslearning.com/articles/learning-korean-nyc