"I give my friend a present."
Translation:제가 친구에게 선물을 줍니다.
I looked it up and You're basically right i think just not in a literal sense. Like if you were writing a paragraph about yourself you use 저는 but after that sentence you can just refer to yourself as 제가 because it's no longer important to point out the you are talking about you. So i think this sentence is just introducing that idea and showing the your focus is on the friend here.
I'm not a native speaker i just Google these things lol
In English "I" is the subject in the sentence, and subjects in Korean end in either "이" or "가" (which in this case is 가 because the 제 ends in a vowel), so it would have to be the form that uses the 가. If the sentence was focusing on specifying that it was "I" who gave the present, then it would be 저는 I think.
The noun is 선물, the particle 을/를 marks the direct object in a sentence. In this case, it's used to mark the gift as being given. English relies entirely on word order to determine which word plays which role in a sentence, but Korean (among many other languages) uses special markers to point it out explicitly. 는/은 is the conversation topic 가/이 is the sentence subject 를/을 is the direct object of a transitive verb In Korean there are also other suffixes (words stuck onto the ends of other words) that function like English prepositions (on, in, to, at, and so on); they're called postpositions, because they come after the word they modify.
It's not a silly question. Actually, by virtue of the ~가 particle, 제가 is the subject and means "I." "My" is not written out; it's understood that the friend is "my friend" because the subject is "I." Literally: 제("I")가(subject) 친구("friend")에게(to) 선물("present")을(object) 줍("give")니다(declarative, respect form).