Maybe the person has an affair with a dog and their partner tells them "no, you don't see the dog" like "stop seeing him"
No. In Czech "vidět" does not have he meaning of "John is seeing Jane"="is dating". There is "vídat", but that is not for romantic relationships.
Is it also possible the following order in the sentence: Ne, ty nevidíš toho psa?
Hmm... Maybe: "Ne, ty nevidíš toho psa, kterého jsi viděl včera. Vidíš jiného." (No, you do not see that dog what(?) you saw tomorow. You see other a dog.)
Good question, and I wish a Czech speaker would answer it. I also wish that there was a lesson on word order. Maybe we'll come upon one soon!
As far as understood it is correct. Word order in Czech is somewhat flexible and generally the last word is the one you want to stress more.
"Ne, ty toho psa nevidíš." is a curious sentence to me. I say you that you do not see something. A logical sentence is "No, I do not see the dog." - Ne, já toho psa nevidím.
I think that's correct but it's a mostly awkward thing to say in English. The only way I can think that it sounds right is if you are trying to point out a dog and the other person hasn't noticed it to the point that you are frustrated with trying to point it out to them. An extremely specific meaning.
It sounds to me like the speaker is saying ”tohop.” Are the words supposed to be joined when they end in a vowel and the next letter is a consonant?
I can hear a short pause in the audio.
But there can be joining of prepositions with the following word. For example, take this note from Wikipedia:
One-syllable prepositions usually form a unit with following words. Therefore, the stress moves to the prepositions, ˈPraha ('Prague') → ˈdo Prahy ('to Prague'). This rule is not always applied in words which have four or more syllables: e.g. either ˈna koloˌnádě or na ˈkoloˌnádě ('on the colonnade') are possible.
In the sentence it has "that dog" as "toho psa." The chart said that toho is for accusative masculine animate. I get the accusitave part, but does that mean that this is a pet dog? I thought that dogs are usually inanimate unless they are pets.
Unless it is a toy, a dog is living being (well, for as long as it is alive), so a dog is animate. It could be a pet dog, or it could be a wild dog.
(grammatically) masculine animals are normally animate. Even insects (brouci, komáři), fish (kapři, žraloci), molluscs (hlemýždi, šneci)... Viruses (viry) and bacteria (bacily, koky) are inanimate.
It wasn't always that way, in Old Czech you will find accusatives "na svůj kůň" (onto his horse) instead of "na svého koně".