There are many Korean words, which entered Korean through Chinese. In Korean, they call these "한자" (hanja); the "한자" is the Chinese character itself.
People will use the Chinese character (the 한자) to differentiate words, since lots of them sound the same after porting into Korean.
바다 is a native Korean word meaning sea/ocean.
해(海) is a 한자 word with the same meaning.
And for one example, 해(害) is a 한자 word that means "harm, damage, evil, injury".
The primary meaning of 받다 is to possess things that someone gives to you or sends to you. It's mainly like receive/get.
Take has more than one meaning in Korean. Take as in "to possess something and go somewhere with it (ex: I took my lunch to work) " is 가지고 가다 (가지다 = have/possess; 가다 = go)
Take as in to deprive someone of something is 빼앗다 or ___을 박탈하다
Take as in how the mode is transportation is "___로 타다"
And borrow, lend, and even rent are all "빌리다". AFAIK, they'll use the particles like 에게 (to) and 에서 (from) to differentiate. There also are other verbs for rent, depending on context