"아이는 무거운 가방을 들고 학교에 가고 있어요."
Translation:The child is going to school with the heavy bag.
You're right it literally reads more like "the child is going to school and carries a heavy bag" but I guess in English it'd be more natural to say "with" than "and carries" which I guess is why that's suggested since that's what the English translation uses.
While it's true the word "with" in English can mean "and carries" it's terrible to suggest 들고 is only translatable as "with"
• VS -고, is used usually to describe a simultaneous (but independent) action to the main verb which in this case is 가고 있어요, is going.
So literally, the given example should be translated as:
"The child is carrying a heavy bag and is going to school" [ a listing of events ]
To interpret this as:
"The child is going to school with a heavy bag" is acceptable but syntactically inaccurate because the "carrying" action is only implied but not translated.
The child is going to school carrying a heavy bag (Use of participle clause to describe simultaneous actions) seems the best answer.
• Q: how does the example differ if 으로 or 과 함께 is used instead:
그는 배낭으로 학교에 가고 있어요
그는 가방과 함께 학교에 가고 있어요
or are these not correct in Korean?
A고 B can be used to list simultaneous actions (A and B) or sequential actions (A and then B). The second clause can also be an action that takes place in a state created by the first clause (but not as closely tied as -서).
(Action) by (means) = (means)고 (action)
Or (Action) in/on (Setup location) = (setup location)고 (action)
Or (Action) with (state) = (setup state)고 (action)
(The child holds the heavy bag) sets up the state in which the action (going to school) takes place. The child is going to school with a heavy bag.
-으로 only means 'with' in the instrumental meaning (tool, mean, or method).
TY for such thorough explanation.
On the usage of (으)로, besides its instrumental and directional meanings, it does sometimes carry the meaning 'with' (see below),
Do you (or anyone) know when does this apply?
무거운 마음"으로" = With a heavy heart
추가 가방"으로" 여행 중이다 = Travel with extra baggage
it technically means the child is carrying a heavy bag because of the verb used, but this is another instance where it can be said in multiple ways in English
it's almost as if it's actually saying "the child carries a heavy bag and goes to school" but you know, that's duolingo beta for ya lol