"I am sad."
Translation:Ich bin traurig.
I don't know of any direct cognates. If you want, you could try one of two mnemonics that almost make sense to me.
- "Going down" is similar to "feeling sad." So if we make a connection with "trowel" (a garden tool for digging down), or "trawl" (fishing with a deep net), we can kind of connect the sounds "trow" ("trau") with downness or sadness.
- "Thinking" is similar to "sadness." It seems true in my learning about languages that in general, humans have associated excessive thought with sadness. The english word "trow" means "to think," so if we can connect "too much thinking" with sadness, then "trow" to "trau" shouldn't be too much of a stretch.
Like I said, I don't think there is a fantastic one-to-one cognate to use, but these mnemonics might help.
Also, keep in mind that the german suffix "ig" is roughly like the english suffix "ly". That's not directly helpful here, but as you learn more words, you'll get to see how a root word or idea can be used as an adverb/adjective like word by just appending "ig."
Hopefully something here is useful to you, good luck!
Mir is in dative case. The literal translation would be "Me is sad", which makes no sense even if rearranged like "It is feeling sad to me" because the emotion describes your feelings an not that of another object. On the other hand, you can say "It feels cold to me" because you are decribing another object and not a person.
Was that comprehensible? That was a little hard to explain :-)