Translation:The house is dark.
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There are 3 common forms of conjugations for verbs in Korean. High, mid, and low. High is what you've done in previous lessons with the -습니다. To do that, you take the verb stem (for example, 먹 in 먹다, to eat) and add the 습니다/ㅂ니다 at the end.
What we're learning is mid-form, and to make it we use something called glue. So, separate the verb stem, we'll use 먹 again. Glue relies on the last 'vowel' of the stem. When the last vowel is ㅗ or ㅏ, the glue and ending will be 아요. With every other vowel in the verb stem, it will be 어요.
먹's last vowel is ㅓ, so what we're going to do is put 어요 at the end, 먹어요. And that's basic rules for how you get the mid form with glue.
괜찮다 - to be okay
Stem - 괜찮
괜찮 has an ㅏ for the last vowel so + 아요
There are some changes when a stem actually ends in a vowel. For example, 가다, to go. Glueing that would be 가아요, right? But that double ㅏ vowel is a bit weird, so we just take the second 아 out. 가다 = 가요. I believe that you still use the glue vowels like normal, but you just stick it with the stem to make the w- Vowels if it's anything other than 아/어 at the end of the stem.
보다 > 보아요 > 봐요.
Here's an equation for mid form: VS(Verb Stem) + Glue + 요
But, it seems we're learning some irregulars/special rules in this lesson, so I'd like someone with more knowledge then me on these ones to explain a bit more deeply, especially with the 으 and 이 in the stem, not too sure about that.
Both high form and mid form are common in daily speech. For future reference, low form is just mid form but without the 요 at the end. Only use this for friends and children, etc. though.
Let me know if anything in here is off!
5 essential verbs Part 1.To be not there/to not have/to not exist=없다 Present tense=없어요 (It is not there/I don't have it). Past tense=없었어요 (It was not there/I didn't have it). Future tense=없을 거예요 (It will not there/I won't have it).
2.To be easy=쉬다 Present tense=쉬워요 (It is easy). Past tense=쉬웠어요 (It was easy). Future tense=쉬울 거예요 (It will be easy).