This sentence actually confused me, so I googled if "welcome" and "you're welcome" are the same phrases in Korean. As far as I googled, Koreans don't really use "you're welcome" phrase, which, by the way, is different from simple "welcome" (천만에요); instead, 아닙니다 or 아니에요 is used ("it was nothing", "don't mention it")
I read that they're the same in formality and politeness but that Koreans percieve 고맙습니다 as less formal than 감사합니나.
고맙다 is a native Korean word, while 감사하다 is borrowed from Chinese. Recently there's been a preference among younger generations to prefer Korean-origin words, so the Chinese-origin words tend to sound more formal, and are used more by older people.
Correct. And in general, the Sino-Korean words are considered more formal than the Korean words (a holdover from the days the aristocracy were vassals of the Chinese emperors and - before Hangeul - wrote only in Chinese). A bit less than half of the words in Korean are from Chinese, so I strongly suggest you start studying your hanja early. It is like studying Greek and Latin roots in English. It helps to cut down on the memorization ... you'll start to see patterns that let you guess the meanings of words you haven't seen before.
What is the exact Chinese from which 감사하다 comes? I am only familiar with "xiexie," given the limited extent of my studies in Chinese.
Is 환영합니다 something like 'You're welcome'' as in a reply to being thanked or is it used in a greeting kind of way?
I asked Korean natives in "hinative" to provide me with examples with 환영합니다 and I got: Welcome to South Korea! So it's like a greeting I'm guessing, when you arrive somewhere...
I think it's just usually said when speaking to someone....I'll use a song I know as an example; the song is called 좋아합니다. That translates to "I like you". If the 좋아 part was said alone it would translate to "I like" so I think 합니다 specifies wether you are talking to someone. Just like the word "you"
No, that's not quite it. Like the person above you mentioned: -ㅂ니다 is added to the verb stem to make it more polite. Verb: 좋아하다 (to like) Verb stem: 좋아하 add -ㅂ니다 because verb stem ends in vowel. (습니다 for when verb stem ends in consonant)
and you get 좋아합니다. It means the same as 좋아해요 or 좋아해, but 좋아합니다 is the formal polite form. Can mean "I like, you like, he/she likes" etc, depending on context.
Check this link for clarification: https://www.sayjack.com/korean/learn-korean/formal-polite-form-of-korean-verbs-and-adjectives/
This is the same level of politeness based on the way they're conjugated -ㅂ니다- 고마워요/감사해요 Are less formal yet still polite if i'm not mistaken Maybe 감사하다 is used to show gratefullness to anyone (strangers and colleagues) while you'd use 고맙다 in a different setting, to friends, familly and peers?
Both are formal. You use 고맙습니다 when you are talking to someone your age or younger than you but youre not casual with them while 감사합니다 is generally polite, its used when you are talkinh to elders or someone higher than you.
Does 환영합니다 mean "You're welcome" or does it mean "Welcome" like when you greet someone into your house?
You see this word a lot on signs leading out of airports: Welcome! Willkommen! 환영합니다!
The other one, a response to an expression of gratitude, is often 괜찮아요 ... there may be a more formal expression but I can't think of one off-hand. Anybody?