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  5. "한국은 춥습니다."

"한국은 춥습니다."

Translation:Korea is cold.

September 17, 2017



First it was 한국이 then changed to 한국은 with no explanation as to why or how they were different, yet the English was the same. Confusing for new learners!


이 is a subject marking particle and 은 is a topic marking particle. It's too bad the particles cant be added separately from the nouns and therefore have their own explination, but Duolingo has never excelled in explanations. I would reccommend supplementing your studies here with grammar instruction from another site like talk to me in korean :)


It's avoided on purpose, to make the learning natural instead of systematic. Tips and Notes in the Web version supply explanations to the lessons. In this case, since both are used without explanation, both can be used interchangably.


Both answers should be accepted


Don't worry about it.


Typically 이 & 가 are used the first time a noun is used. 는 & 은 are used thereafter. Without context, either could be correct.


Here's some build on to that:

Think of 가 and 이 as being used to bring in new information, and 은/는 being used to connect what's already known to the new information.

In this sentence: 남자는 메시지가 있습니다 (The man has a message), you probably would've already known about the man with past context.

Maybe you're sitting in your office and your secretary comes in. "There's a man outside wanting to see you." They say. There would've likely been a 가 attached to the man, since it's new information that he exists.

"What does he want?" You reply.

"He (the man) has a message./남자는 메시지가 있습니다." The secretary replies. You already know about the man. He's not new information. What's new information is the message. So, 'message' is the item that will have 가 attached to it, putting more emphasis on it than the man. The man will just have 는 attached to it to attach it to the next word.

I learned this concept from Japanese, and from what I've seen so far, it seems to be the same in Korean. I never understood it when people just said "as for (item), etc. etc." when explaining は, which in Korean is 은/는, and it seems that sentence is popping up here too. I didn't even know what that meant! As for the man? How does "as for..." tell me when to use は or が (은/는 or 가/이)?

I feel like a better way to explain it would be "as for (object), which you already know about +은/는, this is what's new that exists +가/이."

So, to connect that back to the original sentence 남자는 메시지가 있습니다, it'd be like this:

"As for the man (which you already knew about, so you'd use 는 with him), he has a message (using 가 since this is new information, so it gets more emphasis)."

Of course, if you're introducing the man and the message in the same sentence, you'll just put 가/이 on whatever needs more emphasis or could be considered more important.

남자는 메시지가 있습니다. There is a man and he has a message, but the part with more attention/emphasis is the message he has.

남자가 메시지는 있습니다. (I switched 가 and 는). There is a man and he has a message, but what's getting more attention is that there's a man that has the message. 》Maybe the secretary from before came in and said "There's a message for you," making the message already known. "Who has it?" You ask. "A man has the message," replied the secretary, placing the 가 on the man because he's the new information.

Hopefully this makes more sense to anyone reading it! I know I could've used a better explanation when I first learned how this stuff worked, heheh.


Thank you very much...its really helpful...


It's an awesome explanation! Thanks so much!


Thanks! So it's similar to "a/an" and "the" in English. Except in English we don't use those for countries, so it still feels weird to use 이 for Korea.


Thank you so much for your explanation! It is very helpful. :)


It's an awesome explanation! Thanks so much!


Thank you. I've struggled comprehending this, so enjoy your 50 lingots! Merry belated Christmas.


So in my previous lesson I learned that 차겁습니다 means cold, now they say 춥습니다 means cold. What the hell is going on can someone please tell me......


차갑다 (차갑습니다) means that something feels cold when you touch it.

춥다 (춥습니다) means cold as in the weather/temperature of the air or surrounding area.


I thought korea was hot? I suppose different seasons


It's hell during the summer , and freezing during the winter . been there both seasons . talk about extreme weather lol


Come to North India. It's as hot as the sun in summers and as cold as Antarctica in winters....


yes i know.....i visit mumbai every year


North Korea is really cold, South Korea tends to be warmer.


While North Korea would definitely get colder, during winter lots of South Korea gets really cold.

I used to live in a beach town in the southwest, yet during winter I had several days where I couldn't go to work. The busses to the nearby suburbs would get canceled due to snow. Drive 15-20 minutes from the beach and you're halfway up a snow-filled mountain.


There is a reason pickled foods are so ubiquitous in Korean cuisine. When it is too cold to grow crops you need that Kimchi.


Mnemonic: The weather is so cold, it seems like there are ice chubes mixed in the air.


I visited a few years ago in March and it was perfect weather, idk what you mean duo!


When 한극 is the subject do you use the 은 as the subject marker and 을 as the object marker?


It just told me Korea was hot and now kt tells me Korea is cold?


Most of South Korea gets pretty hot in summer. And most of it gets pretty cold in winter.


this type of cold is for weather. Not objects or describing people as cold with the word chajabseubnida


Where is to use 춥습니다 and 차갑습니다

  • 춥다 (춥습니다 / 추워요) is cold as in the air/surroundings.

Ex: 오늘 날씨가 춥습니다. (The weather is cold today. It's cold today.)

방이 추워요. (The room is cold.)

  • 차갑다 (차갑습니다 / 차가워요) is cold as in how a thing feels when you touch it.

Ex: 얼음은 차갑습니다. - Ice is cold.

음식이 차가워요. - The food is cold.


when reading korean, i saw that there are two different ways to pronounce the 'h' syllable and i am wondering what is the proper way to use them. ㅎ is one way and there is another, it has the two dashes about the ㅇ.


The one with two dashes above it? Thats the same letter, but its just written differently. I think its always ㅎ on keyboards, but some people write it the other way.


it's just a handwriting style, the same goes with ㅊ :)


That's two different ways of writing it; not two ways of pronouncing it. It sounds the same no matter how you write it. It's like the difference between having writing "q" and then writing it with the curly dash at the bottom. Or writing "a" vs writing it like an "o" with the downward dash on the right side.


Same as how ㅊ is supposed to have a dash above it, not a strike going down into the top. It changes from hand to electeonic writing


Korea is cold but it ha e many hot idols


why didn't accepted "is cold in korea" ?


"It's cold in Korea." or "It is cold in Korea." probably would've been accepted. "Is cold in Korea." isn't grammatical, in English.


August and October in Korea be like : Tf we're?


Both answers should be accepted!

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