because 않아요 is not made of the verb 'to do'. 않 in itself means negation. If you put 안 to the verb 하다, it becomes 안해요 and is exclusively the negation of 'to do' while 않다 is a negation for other verbs.
So can I say that the rule for negation is stem verb + 않 + ending (formal, polite, etc…)?
same here, I think this response should be accepted, because the woman does not cry sounds really unnatural in English.
I am a native speaker of American English, and it sounds pretty natural to me. "The woman is not crying" refers to somebody not crying at the moment, while "the woman does not cry" means she never cries in general.
So if you make a sentence negative you add 지 to the verb stem and then 않아요?
Yes. Sometimes people will instead put 안 before the verb, usually for a really simple sentence. 안 나와요. It's not coming out. I think -지 않다 is more useful once you start making more complicated sentences though.
This lesson earlier let me get away with 'A man does not cry.' The same logic should apply to a woman, yet this translation demands "THE woman" and marks "A woman" as incorrect.
The sentence with 'a man' used the topic marker 는, which can be used for more general statements. Here we have 여자가, with the subject marker 가 referring to a specific woman, therefore it has to be 'the woman'. Had it been 여자는 in this sentence, it could have been translated as 'a woman'.
지 is the negative particle, it's necessary to express negation. 울지 않아요 = does not cry. -고 is an ending indicative of a continuous activity. 남자는 울고 있어요. The man is crying. -고 can also mean "and", tying together two sentences.
Well, if it is a bad situation and they are telling themselves to be strong, it is not strong to not cry if something goes too terribly wrong
Can someone go over the subject endings please? chuh-nun...yoh-chuh-gah ...nah-nun...when do we use 'gah' and when do we use 'nun', etc?
When you talk about specific women (or any animate objects) as opposed to women in general, you add 들. 들 is not necessary after inanimate objects.