"The singer throws a bag in the room."
Translation:가수가 방에서 가방을 던집니다.
While in the room. Into the room would be 방 안으로.
In terms of 에 vs 에서, the easiest way to think of them now is that 에 is most often used with going somewhere, while 에서 is most often used with a subject doing an action somewhere.
저는 집에 갈 거에요. - I'm going to go (to) home. 저녁은 침실에서 먹었어요. - I ate dinner in my room.
Okay, thank you. So -에 is used when going to or coming from somewhere, whereas -(으)로 seems to be related to transitive verbs, maybe? How would you say something like "I was thrown into the room" or "he threw me into the room"? Still -(으)로? (I know one's passive voice and the other active, and I wanted to see if that changes anything)
Yes that would still be -(으)로. I can't answer this with 100% certainty, but my understanding is that -에 is used for specific places (home, Burger King, Germany). -로 is just a direction. You throw something in the room, but there are many places in the room itself. (Frankly, in the room case, you could probably use -로 or -에 interchangeably).
However, when you say something like "Go this way." you're not giving a specific destination right? 이 쪽으로 가.
Here's an example you can see both used but with different nuance:
나는 서울로 가고 있어요. - I'm heading in the direction of Seoul (but not saying specifically where I'm going) 나는 서울에 가고 있어요 - I'm going to Seoul
Here are a few variations on this sentence:
가수가 방에서 가방을 던집니다 = The singer throws a bag in the room.
Here the singer the room is the location for the singer's actions: throwing a bag.
가수가 방에 가방을 던집니다 = In the room, the singer throws a bag.
The meaning is similar, but instead of prescribing the location of the action, 방에 prescribes the sentence: "The singer throws a bag". What's happening in the room? The singer is throwing bags.
가수가 방 안에서 가방을 던집니다 = The singer throws a bag inside the room.
Here we specify the location of the singer's actions further by explicitly prescribing the interior.
가수가 방 쪽으로 가방을 던집니다 = The singer throws a bag towards the room.
Here we use 방 쪽으로 to indicate the room's direction, so the singer throws a bag in a certain direction prescribed by the room.
가수가 방으로 가방을 던집니다 = The singer throws a bag into the room.
가수가 방 안(쪽)으로 가방을 던집니다 = The singer throws a bag into the room.
으로 is used here to indicate the motion of the bag in relation to the room. The second sentence is literally "The singer throws a bag in the direction of the room's interior."
Is there a grammar rule which I should put first? Like 'Singer room bag throws' or 'Singer bag room throws' ?
I think Duolingo needs to go back and make this sentence more specific, as most native English speakers will interpret this as "into the room", not "within the room". Yes, the correct English phrase should be "into the room" but very few native speakers would say that in conversation. Since Korean forces this distinction, Duolingo should make sure their cues make the same distinction.
The order is valid. Word order is actually quite fluid in Korean. As long as your subject clause come before your objects and your sentences end with a verb, you'll have complete Korean sentences.
Word order can impact the subtext of the sentence, as it lends emphasis on different words in the sentence, similar to how you can stress certain words (which you can also do in Korean).