"What do you do while I work?"
Translation:Co děláš, zatímco já dělám?
I would never say "dělám" in this sentence... it is too confusing and also for me, as a native CZ, it sounds unnaturally. Here should be definitely primary used "pracuji" and "dělám" should be just an acceptable alternative. Remember, if you use "pracovat" as "to work", everybody will know what you mean, so you should rather use this expression ;)
I would say co děláš would mean either, what are you doing or what do you (work) as. But im yet to hear 'delam' as i am working. I think pracuju is a far better fit.
It can mean both. Czech sentence "Co děláš?" could be translated as "what are you doing?" as in right now, what in the world are you doing over there.... OR as "what do you do" as in, what is your job,occupation. There is also a word "Pracovat" that means to work. That word could be also used for both situations but more likely pertains to a job.
The sentence above could be "co děláš, zatímco já pracuji?" which makes it pretty clear that I have a job while you are doing "something".
Pracovat is way more formal. Dělat when in a job meaning is borderline colloquial but acceptable as proper Czech.
Most people would imho use pracuji/pracuju [nothing too formal about it] just to avoid giving 2 [transitive and intransitive] meanings to delat in one go. Intransitive delat means to exert effort while working and as such pertains a touch of pride [which may in the above question add accusation]