"Nevidím velkou lišku, ale velkého psa."
Translation:I can't see a big fox but a big dog.
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While it's certainly true that direct, literal translations often don't work out so well, I don't think that's a problem here. There's absolutely nothing wrong with the English sentence. Since DL allows for multiple translations, some alternatives may be accepted, too.
Using animal names to teach gendered auxiliaries is fraught with difficulties for an English-speaker. Am gathering evidence and will discourse, in good time. Example: cow (F, except in the American South, where "cow" is generic; bull, steer, heifer, calf/calves, cattle...) I live in cattle country but suspect most languages embody a similar agricultural past.
it should be translated "I don't see a big fox", and I can assume that because in Serbian, 'ne vidim' means both "I don't see" and "I can't see", and Serbian and Czech are similar languages. it depends on the context, but in this case it should be translated "I don't see" because it implies that the person sees a dog instead.
Velkého is used to modify a masculine animate, masculine inanimate, or neuter noun that is in the genitive case AND when it modifies a masculine animate noun in the accusative.
Here it modifies psa, which is a masculine animate noun in the accusative case (nominative: pes), as the direct object of the verb.