"화장실에 남자가 있습니다."
Translation:The man is in the bathroom.
It's the word order which changes the sentence. This sentence puts more emphasis on the location of the man (the man is IN THE BATHROOM). If we said "남자가 화장실에서 있습니다", we are putting more emphasis on the bathroom being occupied by a man (there is A MAN in the bathroom). At least that's my point of view
Not really.. It's not just a matter of word order. For example, this cannot be an answer to- "남자는 어디있어요?" In this, the emphasis is on the whereabouts of a certain man. Although if the sentence had been "화장실에 있습니다, 남자가.", it would have the same meaning as "남자가 화장실에 있습니다" Now, the actual sentence could be an answer to a question like- "왜 화장실에 가지 않아요?" asked to a person who is standing in front of the bathroom without going inside.
Word order is very fluid. The order doesn't matter much to the translation (as long as the verb is at the end. That's a hard rule). The difference is the emphasis. So by putting the 'in the bathroom' first, someone who says this is emphasizing the location of the man, not the man himself.
Think of it as an answer to a question.
"Who is in the bathroom?" Vs "Where is the man?"
Is 화장실에서 acceptable? I learned somewhere that it meant 'inside' of something.
~에 (location postposition) = in/at/on
안에 (placement adverbial) = in the inside of; inside [ 안(noun) = the interior ]. Usually used with nouns which represent bounded areas
속에 (placement adverbial) = in the bosom of/midst of; within [ 속 = the inside; the core ]. Usually used with nouns which represent boundless areas, or figuratively
풀 속에 (in the grass), but 풀밭에 (on the greens);
가슴 속에 (in one's chest, fig.; cf. Eng. idiom: get something off one's chest)
뜨거운 물 속에 (in hot water, fig).; 수영장 안에, in(side) the pool; 수영장에, in/at the pool location)
속에 & 안에 are adverbials consisting of (noun)-에. They are not suffixes like the preposition -에.
(2) 남자가 있다. => -가 here plays the role of "object marker" for stative, intransitive verbs which cannot have direct object complements.
있다, 'be' (in existence) or 'is located', is stative, intransitive. It cannot be used with - 을/를. So, -이/가 is used instead.
-이/가 is an "index marking" tool to create a category of a word which otherwise remains of no interest (unknown) to the listener.
남자가 있다. = a/some man is or is located i.e. "There is a/some man" (by inference, where "there" is called a dummy subject)
은/는 is an "index retrieval" tool used to select an established category to be the topic(theme) of the sentence.
남자는 = re.'The man' (re. man who 'has been indexed' i.e. known to both interlocutors; hence, the use of definite article "the")
남자는 [ ...에 ] 있다 = re the man, he is [ at ... ]
남자는 [ ...이/가 ] 있다 = re. the man, he is [of/with ...] = re. the man, he has [...]