"저는 밥을 먹으면 행복해요."
Translation:I am happy when I eat rice.
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in many Asian languages it is like this. You just get it from the context. For example, in Thai, when you say 'morning rice' it is a colloquial term for breakfast. Or if someone said they have no rice to eat, they mean they are poor and have no food at all, not that they have no rice but other kind of food.
It is different; ~면 is the conditional conjunctive, meaning that if the first verb is met as a condition, the next verb is true (if A, then B). ~면서 or ~며 means "at the same time" (while A, also B), which is just a matter of time and doesn't mean A and B are connected. ~면서 can also mean "though, yet, in spite of."
"When" and "if" are equal in this lesson's translation into English. This Korean sentence is about the chance or opportunity to eat rice because "If" is about the uncertainty of getting rice.
"If I eat rice, I am happy"
"When I eat rice, I am happy" (*)
On the the other hand, "while" and "when" are equal to "during". You certainly have the rice and definitely are in the act of eating rice.
"While I eat rice, I am happy."
"When I eat rice, I am happy." (*)
........... ( * The use of "when" is less exact than using "if" or "while" in English.).
I interpret the meaning of this Korean sentence as follows: First I try to translate the Korean sentence literally from beginning to end, it is like this: "(As for me), if I eat rice, I am happy." In other words, "I am happy if I eat rice."
The emphasis is eating rice first, then after that being happy. When/If I eat rice, I am happy. It does not follow that I am happy therefore I eat rice. Maybe you eat other things, but if you (happen to) eat rice, you are saying you are happy, right?
To repeat, "When/If I eat rice, I am happy." or the same thing,
"I am happy when/if I eat rice."
The Korean sentence does not say that when/if you are happy, you eat rice, does it. By the way, I am also a fan of eating cooked rice.