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  5. "문이 닫혔다."

"문이 닫혔다."

Translation:The door is closed.

September 23, 2017

16 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/LiKenun

Many active-passive verbs follow one of the below patterns (with exceptions):

+{아지다, 어지다} Passive Verbs

  • 좋다 (to be good) → 좋아지다 (to become better)
  • 짓다 (to build) → 지어지다 (to be built)

{-vowel, -ㅎ, -ㄲ, -ㅍ}+이다 Passive Verbs

  • 보다 (to see) → 보이다 (to be seen)
  • 놓다 (to put) → 놓이다 (to be put)

{-ㅂ, -ㅈ, -ㄷ, -ㄱ}+히다 Passive Verbs

  • 닫다 (to close) → 닫히다 (to be closed)
  • 잡다 (to catch) → 잡히다 (to be caught)

{-ㄹ, -르}+리다 Passive Verbs

  • 걸다 (to hang) → 걸리다 (to be hung)
  • 열다 (to open) → 열리다 (to be opened)

{-ㅁ, -ㅈ, -ㄷ, -ㅅ, -ㄴ}+기다 Passive Verbs

  • 안다 (to hug) → 안기다 (to be hugged)
  • 잠그다 (to lock) → 잠기다 (to be locked)

하다→되다 Passive Verbs

  • 포함하다 (to include) → 포함되다 (to be included)

하다→받다 Passive Verbs

  • 환영하다 (to welcome) → 환영받다 (to be welcomed)

내다→나다 Passive Verbs

  • 끝내다 (to finish) → 끝나다 (to be finished)

This list is not exhaustive of course…


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Demonym281

this is very upsetting to learn about but thank you anyway. really missing the course notes on these later levels...


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/soobee620

I agree about the tips, and three years later, there are still no tips. :/


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dipagssi

Passive skill now does have tips. And few other previous skills also have tips now. I guess they are currently being added.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Yummyricecake

정말 감사함니다! Without grammar tips, this is such a lifesaver.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ConnonThom

I screenshotted this for future reference. 100x 감사합니다!!!!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Staszek456

NOTE that '닫혔다' is pronounced like [다쳤다]


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/polarisunique

Personally I would translate 문이 닫혔다 as "The door closed", while "The door is closed" would be something like 문이 닫혀있다.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/LenguaChaos

I thought so too


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SeanFogart4

That's an English thing. As a passive sentence "The door is closed" would have had the meaning of "The door closed" nowadays, though the latter is personification implying the door was the agent of its own closing. Then the passive participle 'closed', doubling as a past participle, functions as a sort of adjective giving you the second sentence. It is not passive so much as describing the state of the door from the moment it is (passively) closed onward . . .

This is surely why the passive voice has fallen out of favor -- nobody could be bothered to understand it.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/niakudo

The question should be "문이 닫혀있다"


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/oee16

Yeah. The main point is being able to distinguish a passive verb 닫히다 (= be/get closed) from an adjective 닫혀있다 (= be closed)

The confusion here probably comes from the fact that the English verb "to be" can be used

• as main verb (copula), in which case, it takes on a complement (noun, a noun group, an adjective, or a prepositional phrase); as well

• as an auxiliary for passive form (be + past participle)

At this point, to quote Linguapress, in order to get round this ambiguity, In everyday English, the auxiliary 'be' is often replaced by 'get' to express a verb in the passive, whether in progressive or simple aspect.

So as you suggested, some amendment needs to be made. But it would be more appropriate to change 'be' to 'get' in the translation ...


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Violybray

Why isn't this "The door was closed". 닫혔다 is past tense.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/oee16

The door is getting closed [progress] = 문이 닫히고 있다 => dynamic passive

The door is currently (being) closed [process] = 문이 닫히다 => stative passive

The door remains (is/has been/'was and maybe, still is') closed = 문이 닫혔다

The door remained (had been/'was but no longer is') closed = 문이 닫혔었다

Grammatically, to emphasize a complete break from the present, the Korean far-past (대과거) is a closer interpretation of the English simple past (preterite). But this is just my own opinion. As for now, I would stick to DLG's convention.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Staszek456

What about 《문이 닫혀있었다》? It would be my most natural pick for "the door was (but no longer is) closed". I'm not 100% sure about correctness of this sentence though.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CGTokki

Thank you so much! Your explanations are always very useful. I was wondering how one can tell the difference between the door IS closed or the door WAS closed. In this lesson it doesn't seem to matter whether the auxiliary verb is in present or past tense.

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