Not when it comes to things with 번째. So words like "first" and "second" (첯 번째, 두 번째, etc), which are adjectives, come before the noun they are modifying . Thus it can be understood that it is modifying sandwich and not woman. We are not dealing with counting things here (which follows the rule you stated); don't confuse the two concepts.
샌드위치 두 개 먹어요. (I eat two sandwiches.)
두 번째 샌드위치 먹어요. (I eat the second sandwich.)