"빨간색인 책을 읽지 마세요."
Translation:Do not read the red book.
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In common use it's probably fine, so there's no problem accepting it.
Technically 'which' is for non-defining clauses which only add extra information. 'That' is used for defining clauses where the information given is essential to the meaning of the sentence.
With "please don't read the book that is red" there are lots of different coloured books. It is important that it's the red book you can't read, but you can read any other coloured book.
In the case of "please don't read the book which is red" there is only one book in the room. Then "don't read the book" means exactly the same, and "which is red" is just extra information
In this case the book being red is a defining feature. 'Which' is used for non-defining relative clauses whereas 'that' is used for defining relative clauses. Omitting the relative pronoun altogether is also correct
❌Don't read the book which is red
✅Don't read the book that is red
✅ Don't read the red book
In short 빨간색 is a noun and 빨간색인 is an adjective.
This form comes from 이다, the verb 'to be'.
Slightly confusingly you can also use the noun in place of an adjective (note this is also true in English e.g. home computer, wood table v wooden table).
빨간색 책 Red book 빨간색인 책 Red book 책이 빨간색입니다 The book is red