"그의 친구가 심장마비로 사망했어요."
Translation:His friend died from a heart attack.
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Hm, but if I'm not mistaken (native speakers, please correct me if I am), 사망하다 is quite neutral concerning respect to the deceased person, whereas English "to pass away" is quite respectful. I would expect 사망하다 in formal contexts (it's common in newspaper articles for example). But when speaking of, say, my grandparents or the loved ones of the person I'm talking to, I would choose a more euphemistic expression (probably 돌아가시다, lit. "to go back").
It's similar to the case in Spanish. "Morir" is the regular verb for "to die," often used in most contexts we'd say "die" in English. But when it comes to reportage, medical contexts, official documents, etc., the verb "fallecer" is commonly used. Similarly, with the noun "death," there's "la muerte" and then there's "difunción," which is a more official, formal term for death. For example, in death certificates, "cause of death" would be "causa de la defunción," not "causa de la muerte."
Both "die of" and "die from" are correct.
Die of a heart attack implies the heart attack is the direct cause of the person's death.
Die from a heart attack means the heart attack brings about complications which eventually kill the person.
In general, (으)로 사망했다 = died of; died from; died by; died in
상한 마음으로 사망했다 = died of a broken heart / died from heatbreak
심장 마비로 사망했다 = died of / from a heart attack
자살로 사망했다 = died by suicide
비행기 추락으로 사망했다 = died in a plane crash