I wrote down "the student who is reading a book is my friend" and it was marked as incorrect. I don't see why it didnt pass?
What does this sentence mean as far as honorifics go? Since the ~ㅂ니다 ending is in 합쇼체 (a.k.a "respectful polite/formal" speech), why is the possessive pronoun 내 used instead of 제? Would that not be a strange mix of speech levels, as in you highly respect the listener but are not being humble? Would this be considered rude/informal? The grammar notes for the pronouns section says that 나 is sometimes used with 해요체 (a.k.a "informal polite speech" i.e. with the -요 ending), but this is 합쇼체. Is it okay to use 나 in 합쇼체?
Perhaps my understanding of honorifics and speech levels is too undeveloped at this point, but I hope my question makes some sense.
Great question, and I believe you are technically, traditionally correct. But the use of 나는 and 내 is so common, that I don't think anyone would take it as a slight. It seems fairly common in the dramas, but maybe a native will give us some input.
는 in this context is a modifier describing the action of the subject. You will notice that the subject marker "이" is in 학생 which denotes that the student is the subject rather than the book.
Good point about the 는 changing the verb to a modifier, and the 이 marking the subject. However, 은 could also have followed 학생, if the speaker wanted to distinguish or differentiate his friend from another student. This is a point that DL has not handled well in the course so far. Both sentences would translate the same. The student reading a / the book is my friend. The current rendition w/ 학생이 is a simple statement. The speaker is simply pointing out a friend. With the addition of 은 he is being more specific, and maybe implying others are not friends.
I don't understand grammar (English or otherwise), but I read the sentence's word sequence in my language (I'm from India), and I understood the meaning perfectly!!
I guess Asian languages are so similar that if I learnt Korean in an Indian language, it would be much less difficult for me than through English. It's sad that these options are not available (anywhere) yet.
So since 책 has the object particle attached does that mean that 읽는 is still a verb? I though it changed them to a noun
You could say "The book-reading student..." and call it a gerund if it makes more sense that way.
We could really get confused by getting into complex grammar constructs. A "gerund", technically, is noun formed by adding "ing" to a verb. In this situation it is closer to a present participle--"a student who reads books," but it is located in an adjectival or modifying phrase, so we might just want to call it part of the adjective. This is a very common construct in Korean. -- The students taking tests. 시흠 보는 학생들 The loudly barking dogs 크게 짖는 개들 The man delivering the pizza 피자를 배달하는 남자 The singer reciting the lyrics 가사를 왜우는 가수
It's a verb in the context of the phrase which is describing the subject (학생). It's not the main verb of the sentence though.