"The student is not charming."
Translation:학생은 매력이 없습니다.
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They are based on the ending character of the root word. If there is no final consonant use "는", If there is one use "은".
학교 + 는 =학교는
산생님 + 은 = 산생님은
Same goes for "이" and "가", except here were have an exception. If the final syllable block is "저" then you use "제", or if the final block is "나" then use "내"
학교 + 가 = 학교가
산생님 + 이 = 산생님이
I hope this helps you! Let me know if this makes sense!
Think of 가 and 이 as being used to bring in new information, and 은/는 being used to connect what's already known to the new information.
In this sentence: 남자는 메시지가 있습니다 (The man has a message), you probably would've already known about the man with past context.
Maybe you're sitting in your office and your secretary comes in. "There's a man outside wanting to see you." They say. There would've likely been a 가 attached to the man, since it's new information that he exists.
"What does he want?" You reply.
"He (the man) has a message./남자는 메시지가 있습니다." The secretary replies. You already know about the man. He's not new information. What's new information is the message. So, 'message' is the item that will have 가 attached to it, putting more emphasis on it than the man. The man will just have 는 attached to it to attach it to the next word.
I learned this concept from Japanese, and from what I've seen so far, it seems to be the same in Korean. I never understood it when people just said "as for (item), etc. etc." when explaining は, which in Korean is 은/는, and it seems that sentence is popping up here too. I didn't even know what that meant! As for the man? How does "as for..." tell me when to use は or が (은/는 or 가/이)?
I feel like a better way to explain it would be "as for (object), which you already know about +은/는, this is what's new that exists +가/이."
So, to connect that back to the original sentence 남자는 메시지가 있습니다, it'd be like this:
"As for the man (which you already knew about, so you'd use 는 with him), he has a message (using 가 since this is new information, so it gets more emphasis)."
Of course, if you're introducing the man and the message in the same sentence, you'll just put 가/이 on whatever needs more emphasis or could be considered more important.
남자는 메시지가 있습니다. There is a man and he has a message, but the part with more attention/emphasis is the message he has.
남자가 메시지는 있습니다. (I switched 가 and 는). There is a man and he has a message, but what's getting more attention is that there's a man that has the message. 》Maybe the secretary from before came in and said "There's a message for you," making the message already known. "Who has it?" You ask. "A man has the message," replied the secretary, placing the 가 on the man because he's the new information.
Hopefully this makes more sense to anyone reading it! I know I could've used a better explanation when I first learned how this stuff worked, heheh.
this is the best description i have ever read. thank you so much. i have to ask, how would 를 fit into all this? as far as my understanding beforehand: 를 is the object marker, and 가 is the subject marker.. but from what youre explaining here it seems like i can use 가 on both subjects AND objects, meaning that word order is probably pretty important in those cases. so how does 를 fit into the equation (ive read up on this a thousand times but you have a way with words and id love to hear your explanation)
~이 is used here as an "object" marker. because 없다 is considered an adjective, it cannot act on an object. you cannot have a word with the usual object particle ~을/를 attached to it if the predicating word in a sentence is an adjective. to deal with it, ~이/가 is then attached to the object instead of ~을/를. it also has this role with the adjective 있다.