"A child with a bag"
Translation:가방이 있는 아이
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This is only a guess on my part, but I imagine that it's so we are sure that 가방이 있는 is connected to 아이 and not another part of a possible sentence. This is just an isolated chunk, so we'll know more once we see other examples in full sentences... (I hope!!!!!)
Edit : The next sentence I got after writing this comment was : "책을 읽는 귀여운 남자아이" (A cute boy reading a book) and I found the explanation in a comment by LiKeneun. He explained that 는 is the present determiner (because there are past and future determiners). I interpret this to mean that it's similar to -ing in English, which is why these "chunks" are roughly translated to "the X - ing Y" - eg "the book-reading boy" (and not a past form like, say, "the X -ed Y" - eg. "the ripped book").
You can read all of LiKeneun's explanation at : https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/24402887
I was curious about the same, only the phrase i was thinking was "가방 있는 아이가" or "가방 있는 아이는." If the fragment we were given were to be part of a sentence with the child being the subject or topic, aren't these correct? Otherwise, if 가방 has the subject marker but not child, wouldn't we be putting the focus on the bag and not the child?
I think thst this is just a phrase to introduce us to the basic sentence structure in Korean before throwing a full sentence at us... (Like, say, "The child with a bag ran down the street.")
If you check the older comments, you can see that Sebihoo translated it as "a bag-having child" and this does indeed make the meaning clearer. 가방이 있는 functions like an adjective.
If you're using Duolingo on your phone, you can check out all the Notes & Tips on this website: https://duonotes.fandom.com/wiki/Korean