"나는 친구의 집에서 설거지해."
Translation:I do the dishes at my friend's house.
Why would I do the dishes at my friend's house when I could have the frog do it.
In this context, "I do dishes." and "I do the dishes." are equivalent statements.
Chingu is sort of a title. Like if you said "Grandma's" we assume it's your grandma's and not some rando.
I mean, its kind of implied. It could also be 'a friend' or something like that. 'Friend' is a bit like a title, literally the sentence is "I do dishes at friend's house". It doesnt make much sense in english, but if you said "I do dishes at grandma's house" then it does make sense. Think of it to be similar to that.
Home is more like a concept ("a place where you can call your own", "a place where you feel safe", bla bla..).
House is the physical thing.
You hardly ever refer to other people's house as "home". It is a personal thing.
E.g.: I am going home. / I am going to my friend's house (not "...my friend's home")
I wouldn't say the second sentence is wrong (it is understandable), but sounds super weird on my ears.