https://www.duolingo.com/HelpfulDuo

Extended katakana list

In this extended katakana chart, some of them have the same sounds but are used differently, such as ジ/ヂ (ji) and ジュ/ヂュ (ju). They are not interchangeable. Make sureャュョ (ya, yu, yo) on the left side of the chart are written smaller when you practice writing.

Extended hiragana list w click to enlarge

Here’s an optional table without Romaji - Extended katakana list without Romaji

Small ッ (tsu): Double consonants
This (tsu) is smaller than the full size (tsu). When there is a small (tsu) between two katakana, you have to pause slightly between them when pronouncing it. Typing double consonants will produce small small ッ (tsu).

Katakana Romaji Meaning
トラ torakku truck
カー sakkā soccer
ロボ robotto robot

⁺vowel extender mark or long vowel mark:
a short line (ー) following the direction of the text, horizontal or vertical.

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Please review.
Hiragana
Extended hiragana list
Katakana

September 29, 2017

5 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/Maughanster_

ありがとう!I still need to get the Katakana cemented into my brain, so this is very helpful! And I have a question: is ロボット a loan word from Czech or English?

September 29, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/garpike

English would seem more likely, I feel. The word was coined in Czech in 1921, but first attested in English only two years later in 1923 and quickly entered common usage. Unless there was some notable cultural or technological exchange between Japan and (then) Czechoslovakia during the first half of the 20th century (which, whilst not impossible, I have never heard of), it seems considerably less probable that the Japanese encountered the word through Czech. It would help to know when the first attestation in Japanese dates from.

September 29, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Maughanster_

Thanks garpike for your thoughtful insight!

September 29, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/HelpfulDuo

The original usage of the word seems to be from Czech writer in R.U.R. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R.U.R. But when the play was translated to Japanese, it was 「人造人間」 じんぞう にんげん (EN: Mechanoid, humanoid robot, android - not iPhone) in 1923. And another translated publication came out as 「ロボット」in 1924. By that time, the play premiered in NY and London. So I assume that the word ロボット is from English Robot, but the original creator of the EN word Robot is form Czech. (I'm only answering your questions based on the online resources available.)

September 29, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/MaynardHogg

You forgot ズ and ヅ.

Together, these sound mergers are called Yotsugana (四つ仮名. Wikipedia even provides a Dialect map.

  • There are dialects which maintain some or all distinctions and others that merge all four into a single sound.

  • Input methods maintain the distinctions out of morphological considerations.

Try typing Numazu and see if 沼津 comes up. If not, try Numadu (ぬまづ ) instead.

Ditto for Awaji (淡路), another place name. If that fails, try the traditional Asadi (あわぢ).

June 16, 2019
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