"이 아이와 이 고양이가 같이 이편으로 달립니다."
Translation:This child and this cat run in this direction together.
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First of all 같이 means together, so that's missing in your sentence and secondly yes it's the same meaning in this sentence, but in general "with" and "and" are two different words and can change a sentence. If I remember correctly to say with 학고 should have been added to the second subject (the cat), so something like: 이 아이가 이 고양이학고 [...]. I'm reeeeeally not in expert in korean, this is just what I remembered from Duolingo so far, more or less
Accepted 2019 as "this child and this cat".
In English if the two things are near each other, we often use "the/this/that" and their plurals only on the first.
When we know which things we are talking about:
The cat and mouse are playing games. The cat and the mouse are playing. These roses and daisies grow quickly.
......... When we need to be specific because there are more choices:
The cat and the dog play games. The cat and that dog play. These roses and these daisies grow quickly. That rose and this daisy do not grow slowly.
Here it means "in this direction."
Personally, it seems to me the best way to think of 으로 is like the English suffix "-wise" (think "clockwise" = "in the way a clock goes"), but with broader application than we use in English.
So 한국어로 ("Korean-wise" or "in Korean"), or 손으로 ("Hand-wise" or "by hand") or 식사로 ("Meal-wise" or "as a meal"). So here 이편으로 means "this direction-wise" or "in this direction").
In English we use a ton of different modifiers to mean the same thing as 으로, so you have to figure out which one suits the context best.