"The thinking woman is standing."
Translation:생각하는 여자가 서 있어요.
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Verbs that do not take a subject (-ㄹ/-를) do not use the -고 있다 pattern. Typically, these verbs are reflexive (the subject operates on the subject) like sitting oneself down.
For the conditional verbs like sit, stand, to be open, to be closed, to be locked, live (sometimes), etc. you always put 있다 after you conjugate them in present tense, as far as I know.
Does anyone know why it is 생각하는 but 똑똑한. although both have 하다 in the infinitive form?
Yes, it is because 생각하다 is an action verb (to think) while 똑똑하다 is a descriptive verb ("to be smart"). Action verbs always get 는 while descriptive verbs get either -ㄴ or 은.
From the tips and notes of the Modifiers 1 lesson:
For a basic descriptive verb ending in a consonant we take the verb stem and add -은. 작다 → 작은
For a basic descriptive verb ending in a vowel, you simply add -ㄴ at the end of the syllable. 나쁘다 → 나쁜
Action verbs as well as 있다 and 없다 are much more straightforward to turn into modifiers than descriptive verbs. Simply take the verb stem and add -는.
가다 → 가는
The english for this is really clumsy. Thinking woman would normally refer to a personality or temperament of a person who has a habit of being thoughtful. A better translation would be: the woman who is thinking
Why isn't it 서고 있어요 but only 서 있어요 the "고" is missing since it's in the present progressive?
서다 is a stative verb, which has the irregular progressive form of appending the 해체 form with 있다. Thus the appropriate present progressive verb is 서 있다.
Note that you can still form a progressive verb in the usual fashion (서고 있다) but the meaning shifts to "in the process of standing".