I wonder if there are useful synonyms for 게 (crab) given how similarly it sounds like 개 (dog).
If it helps, I've heard 강아지 used to refer to dogs. I believe it's more of a way to say "puppy" or a cuter way of saying "dog"
the crab게 is pronounce like the "a" of "take" but without the sound y 개 the dog is pronounce like the "e" of the word bet.
Using vowel explainations like this does not work because across different accents the vowel sounds vary considerably. How an American from New York would say those words is not the same as how an Australian would or a British person would. For example, in a New Zealand accent, the word bet sounds very similar to the word "bit" in other accents.
also most Koreans will tell you that ㅐ and ㅔ sound exactly the same. so you don't need to worry about it.
This is an unfair question, how does one know which one it ahould be without context?
개 = dog 게 = crab one uses ㅐand the other uses ㅔ. but when speaking there really isn't a way to know the difference without the context.