Grammatical cases explanations.
Czesc! I have been learning Polish for a little over a week, and to me Polish is an easy language when you exclude the grammatical cases in the language.
Cases: Nominative Accusative Locative Instrumental Genitive Dative
Explain all of these, prosze
Nominative is the subject of a sentence, the do-er.
Accusative is the object, that to which something is done.
Dative is an indirect object, something or someone that an action is done to or for.
Genitive is more or less possessive, that which has or owns something.
Instrumental is how something is done, the instrument by which something is accomplished
Locative tells where something is, something is somewhere. In English, this is usually accomplished with prepositional phrases - from, on, at, in, with.
Dzieki! Therefore as a result of your help, I have given you 10 lingots!
It is at first, but you'll eventually get used to it once you know the correct letters to use for each case.
Cześć, I am native Polish and IMO find my language easy. If you think so as well, you must be very talented in languages - bow my head to you :) In fact it is not that easy. Seven grammatical cases, different noun genders in singular and plural, four moods, sound changes and much more exceptions than rules :) and many other aspects makes a foreigner a strong headache. Comforting is fact that Polish is quite homogenous one, i.e. every Pole speaks almost the same (of course excluding some local dialects) :)
But still I'm very happy that you decided to learn it and encourage you to keep up. And if you find my help useful don't hesitate to ask in the future :) Cheers
Here is an extensive description of cases in Polish: http://grzegorj.interiowo.pl/gram/en/skladnia01.html
You excluded Vocative case from your list. Indeed, it is not used so often, but only when one addresses his interlocutor directly, when insulting someone directly or with pan,pani.
Besides: when we have negation we switch from accusative to genitive. Genitive is a Latin name that indicates that this case is used to describe possessions. Polish name „dopełniacz” - (a thing) that makes something complete/full demonstrates that this case is used when we lack something, there is not enough of something.
Oscar Swan made some papers on Polish language and publicized them on the Internet:
Also please remember that Nominative in Polish is used much less frequently than you could have expected.