Translation:The backpack is inside the box, and the box is outside the backpack.
I just discovered a neat trick to distinguish if the verb issda in the sentence functions as is or there is. If the an-e or bakk-e is in the front, it will be translated as there is _ inside (if an-e) or outside (bakk-e) _. For example: Sagwaneun sangja an-e isseo - The apple is in the box Sangja an-e sagwaka isseo. There is an apple in the box. PLEASE please help me if I got it wrong. Thanks!
I understood the sentence the same way as you and was confused by the unusual place of the words. But I noticed that the subject of the sentence ends with 이 or 가 like here 배낭 이 the backpack. The preposition directly follows the noun. Exemple inside the box 상자 안에 is said in Korean box + inside.
(1) You can use the conjunctive adverb 그리고, and next /and then, in the place of its associated conjunction -고, and/and then.
But such use is not common. It is mostly found in literary works.
상자 안에 배낭이 있습니다 그리고 배낭 밖에 상자가 있습니다 = There is a backpack inside the box, and then there is a box outside the backpack.
• The sentence is syntactically correct but cumbersome because of the repetition of 있습니다.
• using 그리고 will split the sentence into 2 independent clauses depicting 2 simultaneous facts/actions. So, the verb of the 1st clause will need to be conjugated, using the same tense/style as the verb in the 2nd clause.
"있어" here is therefore not correct.
(2) 있어 appears when ~아/어(고)서, and/ and so/consequently, is used.
배낭은 상자 안에 있어서 상자는 배낭 밖에 있습니다 = The backpack is inside the box, and (so) the box is outside the backpack.
There is a backpack inside the box and a box outside the backpack.
So I am reviewing a week later and this was my answer: "The backpack is inside of the box, and the box is outside of the backpack." According to the red box at the bottom of my page, there is supposed to be "of" in the second part of the sentence, but it is NOT allowed in the first part. I honestly don't understand the difference. It is not like French where "of" is part of the preposition. I'm doomed. LOL
1) Koreans used "postpositions", adverbs such as "at, in, inside, under etc..." are placed after (post) the nouns they modify. So "inside the box" would appear as "the box inside" in Korean word order.
There are 2 such instances in the given example:
상자 || 안에 - (lit.) box || inside = inside the box
배낭 || 밖에 - (lit.) backpack || outside = outside the backpack
2) Postpositions 이 /가 act as subject markers. The subject is the noun that precedes either of those adverbs.
In the example given, the subjects are: 배낭 || 이 (in the 1st clause) and 상자 || 가 (in the 2nd clause).
3) postpositions 을/를 act as object markers in much the same way as the subject markers i.e. it will modify the preceding noun.
There is no "object" in the given example.
But usually, a sentence with subject & object would look something like:
배낭"이" [Sbj] 상자"를" [Obj] 덮습니다 [Vb]- The backpack [Sbj] covers the box [Obj] .
It is perfectly fine as you said to shift the subject farther away from the verb. In fact, that would be the exact reverse translation of DLG Eng. sentence.
(1) 배낭이 상자 안에 있고, 상자가 배낭 밖에 있습니다 = The backpack is inside the box, and the box is outside the backpack
=> with the location expression right next to 있다, the importance is on location. This indicates that 있다 = to be (located)
DLG Korean sentence:
(2) 상자 안에 배낭이 있고, 배낭 밖에 상자가 있습니다 = There is a backpack inside the box, and there is a box outside the backpack
=> with the "real subject" (object of intransitive verb) placed next to 있다, this indicates that 있다 = There is/are (where "there" is a dummy subject).
Semantically, the two sentences mean the same.
But it is worth remembering that the closer a locution is to the verb, the more important it is to the sentence. This is the same in most (if not all) languages.
I think DLG wants to show us
• word order in a Korean sentence is quite flexible owing to the use of markers (postpositions). The same meaning can be reached by simple deduction.
• (V)-고 is a coordinate conjunction (not a marker) joining 2 independent and complete actions, to create a compound sentence.