Translation:Song and dance
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It's really specific to the letter and sound "ㄴ". I've noticed this also when i was in Korea so I ask a friend who is native speaker and she told me that it's probably because the "n" sound is produce with the tongue really close to the front teeth (like right behind, high, and then the tongue drops). For example, I'm a french native speaker and the "n" sound is definitely more behind so i guess it's normal that we hear "d" instead of "n" sometimes
In a word, countability.
In English, putting an article like "a/an" or "the" with a noun implies there is only one of the noun. Omitting the article on a singular noun, like "song" or "dance", makes it uncountable; it transforms the noun from a discrete object or objects of which one can count individuals (one song, two songs, etc.) into a collective stuff you can have a little or a lot of (like water, or sugar, or molasses; you can't usually drink "a water", but you can drink some or a lot of water).
Thus, "song and dance" refers more generally to singing and dancing than to a specific song or a specific dance; "there was song and dance before the fireworks" means some people did some singing and some dancing before the fireworks, whereas "there was a song and a dance before the fireworks" means one song was sung and one dance was danced before fireworks happened.
This is correct. Korean does not match directly do English sounds and romanization. So in fact 노래 isnt quite 'norae' or 'dorae'. Imagine making a sound inbetween the two and that's closer to the original sound. As stated above though, this is for the beginning of a word. At the end of a syllable or the beginning of a following syllable ㄴ is 'n'.
Also in Korean you tend to blend the end and beginning of syllables together. This where 합니 goes from 'hab-ni' to 'ham-ni'. Try saying 'habni' really fast 10 times. You'll notice that naturally you start skipping the end of the 'b' sound by not opening your mouth - you keep it closed and move right to the 'n' sound. This is where it becomes an 'm' rather than a 'b'.
Then the opposite happens with ㅁ at the start of a word. You emphasise the opening of the mouth and ㅁ sounds more like 'b' than 'm'.