"A man is charming."
Translation:남자는 매력이 있습니다.
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The best way to differentiate the two, is to add the 를/을 to the example
When a subject ACTS on an object like "I eat bread" - "나는 빵을 먹어" You apply 을 to what 나는 is acting upon
When a subject is the way it is BECAUSE of an object "I am charming" - "저는 매력이 있습니다" We're simply shown that the object acts on us to be the way we are Meaning that the sentence is proving that 저 HAS 매력 but isn't using 매력 with a verb
Therefore it wouldn't make sense to say 남자가 매력을 있습니다 As it would give off this nuance of "The man is existing the charm" which is how Koreans would hear that sentence. Throughout your experience with Korean, you'll find that your subconscious will naturally know the difference between the particles and honestly, koreans don't actually use '는/은' '가/이' or '을/를' as much as you think, so don't struggle with it's meaning too much!
ㅂ니다 / 습니다 is considered to be "Formal Tense"
If the root of the verb ends in a vowel you apply ㅂ니다 If the root of the verb ends in a consonant you apply 습니다
Because we have the two verbs 있다 - To exist, to have 이다 - To be
We have to conjugate occordingly 1. Remove -다 from the verb in order to acquire the 'Root' ( 있다 turns to 있) and (이다 turns to 이)
We verify which root ends in a consonant and which ends in a vowel (있's last letter is "ㅆ" which is a consonant) (이's last letter is "ㅣ" which is a vowel)
Using the template above that deciphers whether the root is added to -ㅂ니다 or -습니다 , we apply
있 + 습니다 = 있습니다 (To have) 이 + ㅂ니다 = 입니다 (To be)
Now that we know the difference, we need to understand why these verbs don't act like the English equivalent.
Since we're talking about Korean, we shouldn't expect Korean to work the exact same way as English.
In English we use "To be" in order to describe our characteristics, but in Korean or German or most other language they use the verb "To have".
In Korean if you were to say "매력이 입니다". You're literally saying "I'm Charm" rather than "I have charm" To English speakers it makes no sense because they believe that people ARE descriptive words but in other languages it's completely different.
To finish answering you question, in Korean, when describing your personality, you would often use '있다' unless you wish to say you're a ____ person, you would say "전 착한분 입니다" (I'm a nice person)