i learned this as 나증에 봐요. during my formal education in korean. why is it 봬요? it comes from 보다 (to see)?
It comes from 뵈다. Formal version of 보다. That's all!
Isn't the formal word 뵙다? How does the conjugation work to make it 봬요?
It's an irregular verb. Looks like ㅂ was just skipped over to make it 봬요 like 되다 turns into 돼요.
Why is it the formal version? I've never heard of that. Like honorifics version?
Yes like honorifics. I wouldn't worry about them too much.
Why isn't 이따 accepted?
The pronunciation on 봬요 is incorrect. It pronounces it "bae ya" when it should be "bae yo". 봐요 is correct also.