"Nesnáším tmavě žlutou!"
Translation:I can't stand dark yellow!
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And even the English words "yellow" and "gold(en)" come from the same single root, which is the same as Czech "žlutý" and "zlatý", only through different sound changes. In Germanic languages it's more obvious in German (gelb - yellow, golden - golden) or Swedish (gul - yellow, guld/gyllene - golden)
Oh, and Czech "zelený" (green) also comes from the same PIE root :)
Oh yes, Finnish "keltainen" (yellow) was borrowed from Baltic languages. And Finnish "kultainen" (golden) was borrowed from Germanic languages.
And since both borrowings are very old and Finnish is conservative (and so are Baltic languages), we can paradoxically see in Finnish how these words from yellow and gold were originally one indo-european word :)
"Barva" is a noun, but "žlutá" is still an adjective. Adjectives are modified by adverbs.
We could theoretically modify "barva" with two adjectives, i.e. "tmavá žlutá barva", which is how it's done in English (a dark yellow color), but it's just not done in Czech. We don't say the color is both yellow and dark, we say it's yellow -- how yellow? "darkly" yellow.
"světle žlutá" is "light yellow (color)"
("světlo" means "light" as a noun)
And the form "žlutý" here would be masculine inanimate, so you'd have to be speaking about a yellow object, such as a table: "Nesnáším tmavě žlutý (stůl, dům, kabát...)" which would be "I hate a dark yellow one".