Not a specific type of examination. In everyday life, this word is often used when teachers say "숙제 검사를 하겠어요. (I will check your homework)".
That gives me nostalgia, our teacher used to do that a lot and man that sentence is stuck in my head. I agree, you're right.
Depending on context, it can mean either 檢査 (examination, inspection or test), 檢事 (prosecutor), or 劍士 (swordsman).
Inspect is also an acceptable definition. This word has way too many definitions. Either widen the acceptable definitions as a verb (examine, inspect, check, test) or noun (examination, inspection, checkup, prosecutor/attorney) or give it more context.