"Du poulet" is some chicken, or a non-specific amount. You can convey this in English by either using "some chicken" or just "chicken" with no article. "A chicken" is "un poulet".
I have seen and heard "frigo", although I'm not sure how widespread or current it is. The French do like to shorten words.
Btw, given the discussion here about the origin of "fridge", it seems Frigidaire is also credited with being the origin of "frigo".
Now that would be handy! Having fluent French people to tell us what words they commonly shorten.
La Rousse gives "frigo" as a synonym for réfrigérateur. http://www.larousse.com/en/dictionaries/french-english/frigo/35224
"Frigo" is more common than "réfrigérateur" in Québec. I'm not sure about France.
Frigidaire is a common word for "fridge" in Quebec, but I believe is origins is because it's the name of the major appliance company common for manufacturing refrigerators (same name).
Is there a more casual way to say 'le réfrigérateur' like how most would say fridge?