"A cute boy reading a book"
Translation:책을 읽는 귀여운 남자아이
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▪who reads (is reading) a book: defining relative clause, aka dependent adjective clause. These clauses function as adjectives
▪reading a book: participial clause (phrase), aka reduced adjective clause functions exactly as its full form ie as an adjective.
In short, all three structures are acceptable.
(2) aim of this sentence: to show us (students) that a korean relative clause (ie one defines by a pronoun - that, who, which, whom, whose or an adverb - when, where, why) always precedes the head-noun like an adjective does; whereas in English, such clause goes after the head-noun. eg.
the reason 'why they left' = '그들이 떠난' 이유
the place 'where he rests' = '그가 쉬는' 곳
the time 'when flowers bloom' = '꽃이 피는' 시간
the man 'that reads books' = '책을 읽는' 남자 etc.
And as you have rightly observed, a Korean relative clause is literally an adjective. It does not need a relative pronoun or adverb to connect it to the head-noun.
Strange. So how do we say "a boy reading a cute book".
Although there is no set rules on how to order different types of adnoun in Korean, I tend to agree with @samisuncreative in this case
책을 읽는 귀여운 남자아이 = 귀여운고 책을 읽는 남자아이 (*add '-고' to the attributive adjective to separate it from the relative clause, if order is to be switched around)
Because that means the cute boy IS reading a book.
The way this sentence is structured is making use of the lesson for this course, which is verb modifiers.
There is only one noun here, and that is 남자아이. The others are treated as adjectives because of the presence of 는/은.
(책을 읽는) - means reading a book. Combining it with our noun, it will be: 책을 읽는 남자아이 - or, a boy reading a book (is......). This whole thing is a noun still. (귀여운) - means cute (as an adjective, rather than a verb). The verb form of this is 귀엽다, followed by whatever verb ending you want.
Combining all of them will yield: (책을 읽는) (귀여운) 남자아이..... (Book-reading) (Cute) Boy - which can be followed by 는/은 or 가/이, depending on the nature of the noun, if it's a subject or a topic.
Some above are asking why 귀여운 책을 읽는 남자아이 is not possible. That's because, as some have already said above also, is that the cute now pertains to the book. A cute book - 귀여운 책, and the whole sentence translating to the "The boy reading a cute book............"
Alright let me see if im understanding this modifier thing properly.
귀여운 남자아이 - A cute boy reading a book
[ ] symbolizes a modifier
Does this mean that modifiers can stack?
eg. A cute-fast-smiling boy reading a book - 책을
Is this correct or nonsense? If it is the latter, id appreciate the enlightenment
Yes. The stacking system applies to adjectives, like it does to verbs because Korean adjectives are basically verbs.
For clarity, you could use the connective particle 고 (attached to the verb stems) to separate the adjectives (just like the 'commas' in English).
책을 읽고 귀엽고 빠르고 뚱뚱하고 웃는 남자아이.
As punctuation marks are not the strong point in Korean language, to avoid confusion a suffix -고 usually is added to the end of each adjective/verb stem. -고 will act as an English comma.
책을 읽는 귀여운 남자아이 = 귀엽고 책을 읽는 남자아이 = Cute boy reading a book
Without -고, there might be ground for misunderstanding as VonGodinez has rightly pointed out.
Adjective ordering restrictions are virtually non-existent in East and South Asian languages (although adjectives of origin seem to take priority in most of the cases, but that's another matter).
This feature probably applies to Korean to some extent.
My guess is the machine translation tool would read 귀여운 책을읽는 소년 as [귀여운] [책을읽는] 소년 = [cute] [that is reading a book] lad [On dealing with the relative clause apart] --> cute lad (that is) reading a book = A cute lad reading a book.
This would explain why it marked your answer as 'Correct'. (Your answer might be ambiguous, but not wrong.)
If you were to write 귀여운책을 읽는 소년 (no space between 'cute' and 'book') the program would read this as "A lad reading a cute book" and would definitely fault you.
Any feedback from DLG monitors or Korean natives/experts are always more than welcome.
Usually, Korean uses the suffix "-고" to separate multiple adjectives (similar to the use of commas in English cf. https://www.quora.com/What-does-this-sentence-imply-The-panda-eats-shoots-and-leaves).
Failing that, in order to save any ambiguity, participial or phrasal adjectives generally take precedence to simple adjectives. Still, it would be advisable to use -고 between phrasal adjectives too.
In this example, you could use either
책을 읽고 귀여운 남자아이
책을 읽는 귀여운 남자아이
귀엽고 책을 읽는 남자아이
or at the very least
귀여운, 책을 읽는 남자아이 (using the Western punctuation mark "comma")
귀여운 책을 읽는 남자아이, as this reads A boy reading a cute book.