Latin for Duolingo: Verbs, Future Perfect Tense
Salvete omnes! Welcome back to Latin for Duolingo. This is an ongoing, unofficial course in Latin; if you would like to catch up with previous lessons, you can find a directory, a classified vocabulary list, and Memrise courses at these links:
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- Memrise course for verb principal parts
- Previous lesson: Pluperfect Tense, Lesson 2
Last lesson covered pluperfect verbs. This lesson will complete our survey of the three perfect tenses of the indicative active, with the future perfect tense. Though it’s not used frequently in English, it is used a little more frequently in Latin. The endings
–ero, -eris, -erit, -erimus, -eritis, -erint are added to the perfect stem (from the 3rd principal part of regular verbs). You’ll notice the 3rd person plural,
-erint, is the only one that is different from the conjugation of “sum” in the regular future tense (and that is probably because –erunt is already used as an ending for the perfect tense).
For deponent verbs, take the perfect participle, which is the third and final principal part for deponent verbs, and add the future tense of sum as a helping verb.
Exempli gratia, in the 3rd person plural:
(regular verb) voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatus;
vocaverint = they will have called
(deponent verb) loquor, loqui, locutus sum;
locuti erunt = they will have spoken
In practice, Latin sometimes uses future perfect tense where we would normally use the regular future tense. It emphasizes that at some point in the future, the action will have happened. It’s a great way of looking at a future task that you are dreading and visualizing it as complete. The Romans were very practical this way, and probably spent less time worrying and more time acting.
finis, finis, finium (gender f., m. in pl) = end, limit, boundary, death; pl. territory, country
In fine vicerint. = In the end they will have won.
Exercitus in fines hostium transiverit. = The army will have crossed (gone across) into the territory of the enemy.
Medicum vocaverimus. = We will have called the doctor.
Lucia satis temporis habuerit. = Lucia will have had enough time.
Discipuli in scholā manserint. = The students will have remained in school.
Optimus(a) fueris. = You will have been the best.
Potuerint natare. = They will have been able to swim.
Quid potuerit facere? = What will he have been able to do?
Cauponam invenero. = I will have found the restaurant.
Te viderimus. = We will have seen you.
Quid Mater dixerit? = What will Mother have said?
Mus poculum lactis voluerit. = The mouse will have wanted a cup of milk.
Paula primum abiverit. = Paula will have gone away first.
Quis dentifricium ceperit (sustulerit)? = Who will have taken the toothpaste?
De Marco cogitaverint. = They will have thought about Marcus.
Pecuniam magistrae dederimus. = We will have given the money to the teacher.
Totum diem laboravero. = I will have worked all day.
Totam hebdomadem exspectaverint. = They will have waited all week.
Te cras videbo, ubi domum venero. = I will see you tomorrow, when I (will have) come home.
In fine Marcus rex factus erit. = In the end Marcus will have become king.
De quo locuti erunt? = What will they have talked about?
Nimis locuti erimus. = We will have talked too much.
Iterum conata erit. = She will have tried again.
Mortuus (mortua) ero. = I will have died (I will be dead). (Because mortuus, a, um is the perfect participle of morior but also the adjective meaning “dead,” both translations are possible)
Infans natus erit. = The baby will have been born.
Multi canes nos secuti erunt. = Many dogs will have followed us.
(Here are some sentences from Latin literature using the future perfect):
“Desilite, commilitones, nisi vultis aquilam hostibus prodere. Ego certe meum rei publicae atque imperatori officium praestitero. = Jump down, comrades, unless you wish to give up the eagle to the enemy. I shall certainly have performed my duty to the republic and the commander. (Julius Caesar, recounting the words of a brave signifer leading the way in a difficult aquatic landing.)
Qui Antonium oppresserit, is hoc bellum confecerit. (Cicero) = He who will have crushed Antonius will have finished this war.
Dum loquimur, fugerit invida aetas: carpe diem, quam minimum credula postero. (Horace) = Even as we speak, cruel time will have fled: seize the day, trusting as little as possible in the future.
I hope you will have enjoyed this lesson! As always, if there are corrections or questions, feel free to leave a comment below. Gratias et valete!
Next lesson: Passive Voice 1