"A woman writes the book down by hand."
Translation:여자는 책을 손으로 씁니다.
I actually looked that up and found that 쓰다 is used when you use your brain and creativity to write something (a book, a letter, some calligraphy, lyrics, you name it), while 적다 is used for quite the opposite - when you don't think much, do it automatically, fast, maybe some sketch or scribble, things you don't care about much or when you talk about something written or reading what is written (just reading doesn't require a lot of brains). However, if you want to emphasize that what is written took some thought and creativity, then you use 쓰다. In a lot of situations, you can't tell what can be considered creative or not and it is rather subjective, so both words can be used interchangeably, but one should keep in mind their subtle meanings. I hope I explained it clearly :T
UPD: I copied the explanation from korean-stackexchange-forum (see below DEFINITION)
여자는 책을 손으로 적습니다should NOT be accepted.
Because writing a book is a creative process that involves the brain into the process (usually it does, I don't know what kind of book is there, but let's be respectful to an anonymous woman).
Am I right?
쓰다 - creatively writing
쓰다 is used when you are writing something creative and meaningful. You act as an author.
Use cases: creating (writing) books, writing letters, writing texts of the songs, writing this article (check my last chapter of this paper :D ).
적다 - making notes
적다 is mostly about the simple process of writing symbols on paper/on the screen, to save something in a written form. So, it is mostly about the mechanical process of hand-movement.
Use cases: making notes, writing the shopping lists, saving the phone number in an old-style contact-book.
Question about translation
So, the most suitable translation for the original sentence "The woman writes a book" depends on the woman and her book. If that sentence was about another one "Harry Potter and something" book from Joanne Rowling — it is definitely
쓰다. But if the woman is my neighbor and she is filling a register-book of her daily purchases —
작다 would fit better.
Every particle or marker has a dual form depending on whether the word stem ends in a consonant or not. This is to ease pronunciation. Some examples:
- Topic Markers: 은/는
- Subject Markers: 이/가
- Object Markers: 을/를
- "and"/"with": ~와/과
- "using, method": ~(으)로
- Formal Speech Verb Conjugation: +(스)ㅂ니다
No, the object marker is necessary, especially in written Korean. However, you are not just dropping particles, you are also concatenating the object with the verb. This is improper.
- Noun-verb Concatenation is typically only done with the copula 이다 and sometimes 하다 (though this is pretty nuanced itself).
- Dropping particles is only passable in certain circumstances such as when concatenating with the copula 이다 or speaking casually.
At first glance, but not really. At least not when you consider verb transitivity. Verbs like 자다 are transitive and thus need an object. The derviatives like 잠자다 are ambitransitive and can be used with or without an object. While their meanings are the same, their usages are different.
The verbs 자다, 추다, and 꾸다 are transitive verbs -- they require an object for the subject to act upon.
- 낮잠을 자다 = "to sleep a nap"
- 왈츠를 추다 = "to dance a waltz"
- 악몽을 꾸다 = "to dream a nightmare"
You can use the gerund form of the verb (stem + (으)ㅁ) as an object as well and its the inspiration for the concatenation that turns the transitive verb into an ambitransitive one.
- 잠자다 = "to sleep (a sleep)"
- 춤추다 = "to dance (a dance)"
- 꿈꾸다 = "to dream (a dream)"
In addition, these ambitransitive verbs can gain idiomatic meanings as well:
- 잠자다 = "to idle"
- 춤추다 = "to jump for joy"
The only other ambitransitive verb like this that I'm aware of is 숨쉬다, "to breathe (a breath)" or "to draw a breath".