"The cat comes from the house."
Translation:고양이가 집에서 옵니다.
:/ duolingo needs to include a 30 word paragraph differenciating some of these concepts more clearly because right now it's introducing words that clearly have rules attached to when they are used within a sentence e.g. (namja nun vs namja ga) and while it can be cool to feel around in the dark and draw conclusions for myself it would be nice if there was a 'further reading' area that some of these word particles linked to to help clarify why on one question X is the right answer but on another minutely different question Y is the right answer.
If you click on the lightbulbs for each lesson it takes you to a page with explanations such as this one: https://www.duolingo.com/skill/ko/regular-verbs/tips-and-notes I only just found out about them recently myself.
고양이 gets the subject particle since it's the subject of the sentence. It gets 가 because the ending of 고양이 is a vowel. 고양이가. 집 is house, and has 에서 which can be "at" as in the action is done there or "from" in terms of movement. Since we have 오다 as our verb, it's safe to assume "from." So far, Cat house from comes (or "a/the cat comes from a/the house"). Then 옵니다 is simply the formal conjugation. ㅂ니다 is added to verbs that end in a vowel. 습니다 is added to verbs that end in a consonant.
- ~에/에서 = "to"/"from" when used with verbs of motion
- ~에/에서 = "in"/"at" when used with non-motion verbs (See: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/24359128)
- ~에게/에게서 = "to"/"from" when used with objects that are transferred between two individuals
The final consonant's pronunciation can shift according to its neighboring consonants. Typically this shift helps smoothen pronunciation between syllable blocks. Relevant rule:
- ㅂ + [ㄴ, ㅁ] = ㅁ + [ㄴ, ㅁ]
- Google: "batchim", "받침", "consonant assimilation"