"Do you see the colors?"
Translation:Vidíš ty barvy?
When you say 'vidite barvy" you are asking somebody if he is or is not color blind. If he is capable of seeing colors. Sam se 'Do you see colors?' in English. When you say 'the colors' you do means some colors on that thing over there or something similar. You do need to reflect it in Czech somehow. "Ty" walks in.
"Do you see the colors?" in English does not necessarily mean the colors of something specific. It may very well mean the capability of seeing colors in general. Also, I wonder if "Vidíš ty barvy?" for a native Czech speaker does not mean predominantly "Do you see THOSE colors?". Thanks.