"제가 친구에게 선물을 줍니다."
Translation:I give my friend a present.
Why is 제가 used here? Isn't 제 a possesive abbreviation of 저의 which stands for "my"? Isn't it more correct to use 저는 (I) in this sentence?
저는 is I as topic, 제가 is I as subject. Because saying 저가 is wrong.
제 as my only when 제 + object.
Technically, I is the subject, not the topic. 저 + 가 -> 제가 and 저 + 의 -> 제, but they aren't the same words.
Both “I give a present to my friend.” And “I give my friend a present.” would be correct.
Can anyone explain a little the difference between -에게 and -에게서? I know 에게 is "to" and "에게서" is also "to" but an action is being performed(?) but I keep seeing them interchanged in these sentences.
When an object is marked with 을/를, it is definite; when it is unmarked, it is indefinite.
That is not correct. There are no definite or indefinite articles in Korean.