- 저는 ← 저 (I) + 는 (topic marker)
- 한국 돈을 ← 韓國 (Korea) + 돈 (money) + 를 (object marker)
- 많이 ← 많이 (a lot) [color=grey]← 만ᄒᆞ다 (to be a lot) + 이
- 가지고 ← 가지다 (to possess/carry) + 고 (supplementary connective ending)
- 있어요 ← 있다 (to be) + ㅓ요 (polite ending)
Lit: I be carrying a lot of Korea money.
Color-coded word mapping:
- 저는 한국 돈을 많이 가지고 있어요.
- I have a lot of Korean money.
Pattern used: V고 있다. (Ving.)
But this means that Duolingo's translation is not really correct. Because the English sentence doesn't specify that I have the money on me. "I have a lot of money." can also mean the money is somewhere in a vault. If they translated it with "I have a lot of money on me." or "I'm carrying a lot of money." then it would make more sense.
Korean has separate words for "money" and "won".
For all we know, the speaker collects coins and banknotes as a hobby and might also have some mun, yang, bun, hwan and jeon and some yen and sen from the Japanese occupation. If they're lucky they might even have some tongbo or jungbo!