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  5. "It is cool in summer, and co…

"It is cool in summer, and cold in winter."


October 16, 2017



Why is the first part く but the second part い?


For anyone wondering what's going in this sentence, this is called "continuative form used as a conjunction", in Japanese this is called 連用中止形【れん・よう・ちゅう・し・けい】

Basically, you change the predicate of the first clause into its continuative form and attach the second clause after that,

In this particular example, you are changing 涼しい into 涼しく in order to use this ~く form as a conjunction, in doing so, you can attach a different clause at the end and it this produces a full sentence with 2 parts. You can translate this ~く as "and..." in English but is better if you understand the logic of it in Japanese, imho.

So a literal translation of「夏は涼しく、冬は寒い」would be "speaking of summer, it is cool (and) speaking of winter, it is cold" (again, this is not really a good "and" equivalent but this is the only way to connect these in English). Then you add the です to make the sentence more polite at the end and we have the full sentence that Duo is showing.

You might have seen this form of adjectives being referred as "adverbial form" or "negative form", in reality, is all about connective usage,

when you wanna negate an i-adjective for example, you change it to the connective form and add ない or ありません at the end like 涼しい → 涼しく +~ない →「涼しくない」"not cool".

and when you wanna use these adjectives as an adverb you do the same to attach the verb after then like 涼しく + ~吹きます →「涼しく吹きます」"blows coolly".

There are other examples in duo using this very same grammatical point but with verbs, in that case you use the i-stem of the verb which is called "ren'youkei" duh!, and then attach another clause to the sentence. It works exactly the same but I believe those examples sound more literary and as such they mostly appear in text and in highly formal speech. In those cases the te-form is preferred.


Thank you for the thorough explanation, and also for all the awesome bits of information throughout this course!!


Another way to connect the two clauses in English would be to use a semicolon. Truly they are underused; a sadly forgotten relic of the past overshadowed by the comma.


I do love semi colons used correctly!


I love; semi colons too! Doko demo ii


They have to both be independent clauses, which the part after your semicolon is not; you've created a fragment, my friend.

You use semicolons when the independent clauses are related to eachother and only when they are independent clauses. An independent clause has a subject and verb. E.G.: you created a fragment.

Truly they are misused; they're use is not to be mistaken for that of a comma.


"They're" should be their. Let's get off our grammatical high horses.


That's cool. This whole time we've been using く for negative statements, and now we learn it was what allowed us to extend clauses all along. Super sweet


Why is "and" not a good equivalent? "And" is a conjunction and connects sentences which is exactly what that 〜く is doing, isn't it? Or is it more that using that 〜く makes the word itself a conjunction?


Or is it more that using that 〜く makes the word itself a conjunction?

yeah, I guess you could say that, but is more like the second clause adheres to the first one, similar to how you join i-adjectives with ない like in 涼しく~ない "given the concept of being cool, it is not". So in that manner, it is very similar to "and" from English, but when using "and" you're also losing the written language nuance, it's something like the literary sounding texts you find in the bible (in English).

I recommend this article for more if you are interested:


In any case, most of the time you will use te-form instead, especially in speech. This is something that only appears in written language or in very very formal speech.


Thank you so much for the thorough explanation and follow-up. I'm using Duolingo after a ten year gap of learning Japanese; the class was full-immersion so we would memorize short conversations to give us a guide on how the words functioned. Our textbooks gave thorough explanations of the structures used as well, something Duolingo understandably lacks.


Why aren't YOU in charge of Duo? Honestly


So much going on here. At several points reading it I said to myself aaaah sooo (channelling japanese style see) that's why くgoes before ない e.g. fantastic explanations as usual. You are a hero


Thanks for this thorough explanation! It helps greatly understanding the logic of the sentence




ありがとう isn't typically writted with kanji. どうも needs a う

[deactivated user]

    Was wondering the exact same thing... 涼しくin adverbial form, but さむい in adjective form?


    Why すずしくinstead of すずしくて ?


    It's apparently called 連用中止形 . The continuative form works like the -te form in some cases. Apparently it's more literary, and much more commonly used for verbs. For verbs, you just use the -i/stem form---whatever you would attach -masu to.


    Isn't it supposed to be 涼しくて rather than 涼しく?


    I'm with you. I think いい-adjectives are connected with くて. I think the following is perfectly common and acceptable:


    Moreover, in natural speech, you often hear the て emphasized, especially in a list of adjectives.


    Either is acceptable. The latter is more literary/formal.


    I see. Thanks for the explanation.

    The くて form should be accepted, though.


    It's explained in another duo question's comment that くて connects two statements that are not specifically related, while く alone connects two statements with an obvious connection to eachother. So there is a bit more to it than simple formality.




    Where is the particle between suzushiku and fuyu?


    Why don't you put the verb in the first part of the sentence? ありがとうございます!


    Can I say 夏は涼しいですし冬は寒いです ?


    It has another meaning.


    Is the ending of the first part く to show that part itself is one part, or does it have a different use?


    the first clause 夏は涼しく ends in ~く、the ren'youkei of 涼しい in order to connect with the second clause 冬は寒い、this can be loosely translated as "and..." in english. I made another comment in the same thread with more about this.


    夏は涼しく、と冬は寒いです。 Can anyone tell me why including theとwas rejected? Is it just a Duo thing or is it something that is never said in Japanese?



    the real question here would be: why are you adding a と there? are you trying to connect both clauses with the と particle? If that's the case, you are already doing that with the ren'youkei of the i-adjective 涼しい which transforms into 涼しく in order to be used as a conjunction. I made another comment in the same thread with more about this.


    Thanks for your answer. It was my fault for not reading your earlier post.


    夏に涼しく、冬に寒いです is marked as wrong. Using two topic markers like this seems a bit odd, I was assuming the topic was "it"


    Using two topic markers is actually not unusual here--what is unusual is making it one sentence instead of two and chopping off part of the way you'd normally connect them.
    Without going into that, you can use the topic marker は to express contrast between two things. I'm going to write this in romaji to give you a better impression of how you'd hear Japanese people say it:
    Honda-sensei wa shinsetsu na hito desu. Akiko-sensei WA [and you could end the sentence right there if you wanted to; it would mean, "Honda sensei is kind. Akiko sensei on the other hand..."]
    So in the sentence Duo wants you to write, they're saying, "Summer is cool; winter on the other hand is cold." That's why there's a second topic marker--you're contrasting winter with summer. And I know you want to use に here but it's not necessary. You can actually combine particles back to back, so you could in theory say something like 夏には, which would emphasize that "IN the summer," but again--that's pedantically not what this sentence that Duo asked you to write is.
    People have discussed and argued about this above, but it sounds crazy unnatural to me to leave it at 涼しく to me--I have always heard people say when they connect clauses like this 涼しくて for i-adjectives. I am not a grammar-specialist, but the latter is what I learned, and in four years of language classes in college I never once heard the former. That doesn't mean it is wrong, just that it doesn't sound natural to me and that I'm hesitant to believe Duo that it is correct and not lazy/sloppy. Again, I am no expert. This Duo course has had several times where I've felt that maybe they're being lazy like this and also several times where I feel they're being needlessly strict or even pedantic about how they want to translate something. It could mean there's an issue or it could mean I don't know as much as I think I know, but it's hard for me to tell.


    Should it not be 夏は涼しくて、冬は寒いです?



    I checked other sources and it seems my answer is actually closer to the English than the "correct" translation given by Duo.

    I wrote, 「夏は涼しく、そして冬は寒いです」.

    The difference being the "and" 「そして」. There is an "and" in the English but not in duo's translation into Japanese. Yet I was marked wrong for including it.


    i can't freaking do this question cuz i don't have the japanese coma... this so irritating ':(


    You shouldn't need the comma for it. I do all of my exercises without punctuation.

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