Interesting to see so many Germanisms in Polish :D This has to be derived from German 'Meisterschaft' - I am quite sure about that. :D
Yes there are many. Altogether there are several thousands of words of German origin and most of them aren't used any more in current Polish. The others are adapted. Some changed to a degree that it isn't obvious what was the source of the word. It is said that „dziękować” and „dziękuję” is a cognate of „danken” and „danke”. Mistrz comes from Old Czech mistrz, mistr, which itself is from Old High German meister, which itself comes from latin magister. -ostwo is a Polish suffix.
The link below leads to a dictionary of German loanwords in Polish:
Thanks, Okcydent – fascinating to an Englishman in Germany since 1979. In my very 1st. Polish course (1980), „danke” was my bridge to remembering dziękuję – without realising the words are actually cognates!
To be fair, soccer in the US is on the 4th place by popularity, while in Poland everybody is mad about it. On the other hand, why did you turn it into US vs. Poland standoff?
We didn't win championships – is the correct sentense. "A" article doesn't need here because it is a plural form.
Added "championships" without 'the'.
'a' only works with 'championship'. Generally, "mistrzostwa" are plurale tantum. "Mistrzostwa Świata" = "Чемпионат мира". "mistrzostwo" is the... idea of winning the tournament. "Na mistrzostwach (plural) zdobyli mistrzostwo".
I've no idea about the technicalities of grammar, but we did not win the championships .. sounds more natural.
Yeah, "no X" works pretty well for "żadnego X". And in this particular example, "mistrzostw" can't really mean anything else than some specific championship known from the context, it's just such a word. So "no championship" sounds as if there were many to win and we won none of them. Therefore, "żadnych mistrzostw".