Translation:A woman who is jealous
I think it's a matter of tenses.
질투하는 여자: a woman who is jealous
질투한 여자: a woman who was jealous / a woman who used to be jealous
Sorry I can't quite seem to explain why it's like this when compared to other descriptive verb like 길다 / 긴 (present) / 길었던 (past). But I will give another example with similar structure.
집을 떠나는 남자: a man who is leaving the house
집을 떠난 남자: a man who left the house