"How long have you been living in Poland?"
Translation:Jak dlouho bydlíš v Polsku?
FWIW... I am native AmE. And I am NOT suggesting that "How long are you living in Poland?" and "How long have you been living in Poland?" mean the same thing. Out of context, "How long are you living in Poland?" is indeed incorrect, if asking how long someone who is still living in Poland has lived there.
But this kind of construction is sometimes used in everyday speech -- especially in the US -- with an "in the future" connotation, like "How long are you GOING TO BE living in Poland?" As an example:
A: I'm going to be living in Europe next year!
B: Where will you be?
A: Mainly in Germany and Poland.
B: Wow! How long are you living in Poland?
Here, "How long WILL YOU BE / ARE YOU GOING TO BE living in Poland" is better, but the "are you living" phrasing could be used, and would be understood, with that meaning in this specific context.
- "how long are you living in poland?" - is an incorrect usage of English (it would mean the same as "...have you been living...")
- "how long have you lived in poland?" - is OK, means the same in English as the present perfect continuous variant, but is used less often in such time-related statements
- "how long did you lived in poland?" - is incorrect English
- "how long did you live in poland?" - would be "Jak dlouho jsi bydlel v Polsku?" -- and it would mean (in both languages) that you don't live there anymore at the time the question is asked.
There really aren't more tenses needed, there is no ambiguity. The only merge would be between "How long did you live in Poland?" and "How long had you been living in Poland?" -- the latter could be translated "Jak dlouho jsi byl bydlel v Polsku?" (using a Czech pluperfect), but it's archaic and modern Czech just uses a regular past tense for both "did you live" and "had you been living" (and "had you lived" which really doesn't differ in such questions). But again, in practice this doesn't cause any problems, because the ex-pluperfect (had you been living / byls bydlel) is normally accompained by some kind of time-point (another verb / another thing happening) before which the "living" took place.