Useful expressions in Japanese
The best way to improve your language is to practice using it. Even if you have a very limited vocabulary, your willingness to communicate will help start the conversation. Here are some useful expressions that are short and simple. One word you want to start with is「あのう、」which you can utter to get the attention from the person you are talking to. You can keep thinking about what you are going to say. It also get the listener ready to understand you with the full attention.
|あのう、||anō||uh, er, umm (to draw attention)|
|ちょっと、||chotto||Excuse me? (literally = a little)|
|すみません。⁺||sumimasen||Excuse me? / Sorry.|
|どうも、⁺⁺||dōmo||Thanks. / Hello.|
|わかりません。||wakarimasen||I don’t understand.|
⁺ すみません is gramatically correct, but すいません (suimasen) is used more in conversation.
⁺⁺ どうも～ can emphasize what comes next (どうも すみません).
どうも by itself is short form for どうも ありがとう / どうも すみません。
どうも also can be a casual greeting “Hi!”
The first three expressions can be used by themselves or combined to form sentences.
「ありがとう。」is a useful word to remember, but if you want to be more polite, try these.
|dōmo arigatō||Thank you very much.|
|arigatō gozaimasu||(polite - present tense)|
|arigatō gozaimashita|| (gratitude for something
already happened - past)
Discover cultural differences:
|Yes, correct, good, choose||〇||✔ ☒|
|OK, partially correct||△||(N/A) ⁺|
|No, incorrect, bad, cancel||✖||∖ ⬜|
|counting by fives||正|
⁺ There is no △ used in US.
Post finder: Language guides to help with learning Japanese
In Japanese, verb usage and conjugation is based on how familiar you are with a person - it's all about honorifics. "da" is the super casual form of the verb "desu" which means "to be". You would use "da" if talking with a friend but never if you were talking to your boss or a stranger. "yo" is a sentence modifier that is the equivalent of saying "Hey you probably don't know this so I am telling you" or "you know". So if you say "nemui dayo" that is saying "I'm sleepy, you know."
I haven't learned about deshou yet but a quick google search would probably give you some good answers. Hope this helps!
What I understand about the usage is basically the same as what you have understood, ます for something now and ました for something done in the past. However, in reality people uses ます even for something passed. It is to show that the speaker continues to feel the gratitude for the merits. e.g. You go to a friend's house and he treats you with food, you will say Your food is very delicious ありがとうございます and then when you leave you will say You are very hospitable ありがとうございました but your friend might say You are kind to visit us ありがとうございます. Your friend is showing that your kindness is constant (even though in reality he does not actually expect you to come again :P ).
I assume that you do mean だよ not だろう.
だ is the plain form of です, while よ is a modal particle.
e.g. 何だよ?! What is it?! (a less polite way of saying What happened in Japanese.)
でしょう is the indefinite form of です. It is used to express an uncertainty, often used in requests and suggestions.
e.g. これは砂糖でしょうか？This should be sugar, right?